CENTRO DE REFERENCIA PARA LACTOBACILOS
Unidad Ejecutora - UE
Probiotics: An alternative strategy for combating salmonellosis
CASTILLO, NATALIA; DE MORENO DE LEBLANC, ALEJANDRA; MALDONADO GALDEANO, CAROLINA; PERDIGÓN, GABRIELA
FOOD RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Lugar: Ottawa; Año: 2012 vol. 45 p. 831 - 831
Salmonella produces infections of different nature and severity depending of many factors including the Salmonella serovar involved, strain virulence, infective dose, host animal species, age and immune status of the host. The treatments against Salmonella infections rely on supportive and antibiotic therapy to eliminate the pathogen, but the development of resistance by Salmonella to the antimicrobials most commonly used limits its efficacy. Other disadvantages of antibiotic treatments are that they can lead to acute diarrhea (antimicrobials normally induce an imbalance of intestinal bacterial flora) and may produce chronic toxicity. Considering this undesired consequences of antibiotics and because at the present there are no effective oral vaccines which protect against salmonellosis, scientists have been searching for alternative methods to control enteric infections. In the present review, probiotics are proposed as an attractive possibility to attend this concern. Probiotic are live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. In vitro and in vivo studies showed the effectiveness of probiotic administration in the prevention or in the treatment against Salmonella infection. There are several mechanisms by which probiotic strains might exert their effects. They include non immune mechanism (stabilization of the gut mucosal barrier, competition for adhesion, secretion of antimicrobial substances, etc) and the modulation of the mucosal and systemic immune responses. These mechanisms are species and/or strain specific. There are also evidences that in some cases, a mix of probiotic strains can be more useful than each strain alone against this infection. In addition, the presence of one or more probiotic strains in a fermented product can improve the beneficial properties of the probiotic strains involved. We also reviewed the security of probiotics administration after Salmonella infection in healthy host and in immunosuppressed or babies hosts. Although, the major part of the researches were performed in animal models through in vivo assays or by in vitro studies using human cell lines, some studies carried out in humans to verify the probiotic effects were also addressed in the present review. Nevertheless, is of critical importance to perform more clinical trials in humans to validate the results obtained with each specific probiotic strain or probiotic product.