GOMEZ ZAVAGLIA Andrea
Factors influencing the membrane fluidity and the impact on production of lactic acid bacteria starters
FONSECA, FERNANDA; PÉNICAUD, CAROLINE; TYMCZYSZYN, E. ELIZABETH; GÓMEZ-ZAVAGLIA, ANDREA; PASSOT, STÉPHANIE
APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
Año: 2019 vol. 103 p. 6867 - 6883
Production of lactic acid bacteria starters for manufacturing food, probiotic, and chemical products requires the application of successive steps: fermentation, concentration, stabilization, and storage. Despite process optimization, losses of bacterial viability and functional activities are observed after stabilization and storage steps due to cell exposure to environmental stresses (thermal, osmotic, mechanical, and oxidative). Bacterial membrane is the primary target for injury and its damage is highly dependent on its physical properties and lipid organization. Membrane fluidity is a key property for maintaining cell functionality, and depends on lipid composition and cell environment. Extensive evidence has been reported on changes in membrane fatty acyl chains when modifying fermentation conditions. However, a deep characterization of membrane physical properties and their evolution following production processes is scarcely reported. Therefore, the aims of this mini-review are (i) to define the membrane fluidity and the methods used to assess it and (ii) to summarize the effect of environmental conditions on membrane fluidity and the resulting impact on the resistance of lactic acid bacteria to the stabilization processes. This will make it possible to highlight existing gaps of knowledge and opens up novel approaches for future investigations.