INSTITUTO DE INVESTIGACIONES EN ELECTRONICA, CONTROL Y PROCESAMIENTO DE SEÑALES
Unidad Ejecutora - UE
Unification of optimal targeting methods in transcranial electrical stimulation
MURAVCHIK, CARLOS HORACIO; FERNÁNDEZ-CORAZZA, MARIANO; TUROVETS, SERGEI
Academic Press Inc.
Lugar: Amsterdam; Año: 2019 vol. 209
One of the major questions in high-density transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) is: given a region of interest (ROI) and electric current limits for safety, how much current should be delivered by each electrode for optimal targeting of the ROI? Several solutions, apparently unrelated, have been independently proposed depending on how ?optimality? is defined and on how this optimization problem is stated mathematically. The least squares (LS), weighted LS (WLS), or reciprocity-based approaches are the simplest ones and have closed-form solutions. An extended optimization problem can be stated as follows: maximize the directional intensity at the ROI, limit the electric fields at the non-ROI, and constrain total injected current and current per electrode for safety. This problem requires iterative convex or linear optimization solvers. We theoretically prove in this work that the LS, WLS and reciprocity-based closed-form solutions are specific solutions to the extended directional maximization optimization problem. Moreover, the LS/WLS and reciprocity-based solutions are the two extreme cases of the intensity-focality trade-off, emerging under variation of a unique parameter of the extended directional maximization problem, the imposed constraint to the electric fields at the non-ROI. We validate and illustrate these findings with simulations on an atlas head model. The unified approach we present here allows a better understanding of the nature of the TES optimization problem and helps in the development of advanced and more effective targeting strategies.