Reactions of HNO with Metal Porphyrins: Underscoring the Biological Relevance of HNO
FABIO DOCTOROVICH; DAMIAN BIKIEL; JUAN PELLEGRINO; SEBASTIAN SUAREZ; MARCELO A. MARTÍ
ACCOUNTS OF CHEMICAL RESEARCH
AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Lugar: Washington; Año: 2014 vol. 47
Azanone (1HNO, nitroxyl) shows interesting yet poorly understood chemical and biological eﬀects. HNO has some overlapping properties with nitric oxide (NO), sharing its biological reactivity toward heme proteins, thiols, and oxygen. Despite this similarity, HNO and NO show signiﬁcantly diﬀerent pharmacological eﬀects. The high reactivity of HNO means that studies must rely on the use of donor molecules such as trioxodinitrate (Angeli?s salt). It has been suggested that azanone could be an intermediate in several reactions and that it may be an enzymatically produced signaling molecule. The inherent diﬃculty in detecting its presence unequivocally prevents evidence from yielding deﬁnite answers. On the other hand, metalloporphyrins are widely used as chemical models of heme proteins, providing us with invaluable tools for the study of the coordination chemistry of small molecules, like NO, CO, and O2. Studies with transition metal porphyrins have shown diverse mechanistic, kinetic, structural, and reactive aspects related to the formation of nitrosyl complexes. Porphyrins are also widely used in technical applications, especially when coupled to a surface, where they can be used as electrochemical gas sensors. Given their versatility, they have not escaped their role as key players in chemical studies involving HNO. This Account presents the research performed during the last 10 years in our group concerning azanone reactions with iron, manganese, and cobalt porphyrins. We begin by describing their HNO trapping capabilities, which result in formation of the corresponding nitrosyl complexes. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of these reactions show two alternative operating mechanisms: reaction of the metal center with HNO or with the donor. Moreover, we have also shown that azanone can be stabilized by coordination to iron porphyrins using electron-attracting substituents attached to the porphyrin ring, which balance the negatively charged NO¯. Second, we describe an electrochemical HNO sensing device based on the covalent attachment of a cobalt porphyrin to gold. A surface eﬀect aﬀects the redox potentials and allows discrimination between HNO and NO. The reaction with the former is fast, eﬃcient, and selective, lacking spurious signals due to the presence of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species. The sensor is both biologically compatible and highly sensitive (nanomolar). This time-resolved detection allows kinetic analysis of reactions producing HNO. The sensor thus oﬀers excellent opportunities to be used in experiments looking for HNO. As examples, we present studies concerning (a) HNO donation capabilities of new HNO donors as assessed by the sensor, (b) HNO detection as an intermediate in O atom abstraction to nitrite by phosphines, and (c) NO to HNO interconversion mediated by alcohols and thiols. Finally, we brieﬂy discuss the key experiments required to demonstrate endogenous HNO formation to be done in the near future, involving the in vivo use of the HNO sensing device.