KREIMER pablo Rafael
capítulos de libros
World-System Analysis 2.0: Globalized Science in Centers and Peripheries
Routledge Handbook of Political Economy of Science.
Año: 2017; p. 390 - 404
Science is being transformed by a series of technical and organizational changes that profoundly affect the terms of its production and use, thereby reconfiguring its role in contemporary societies. At the national level, these changes have particularly been analyzed in terms of ?modes? (Nowotny et al., 2001), of ?regimes of knowledge production? (Pestre, 2003; Van Oudheusden et al., 2015), of reconfiguration of the relationship between state, science and industry (Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff, 2000; Joerges and Shinn, 2001), of shifting governance and research evaluation (Mustar and Laredo, 2002), or of a renewed relationship between science and society, due to the increase in public controversies involving scientific and technical issues (Latour, 1999).Furthermore, the nature of the production of scientific knowledge is also subject to greateropenness, for example to indigenous knowledge, patient associations (Callon and Rabeharisoa, 2003) or other kind of actors (Jasanoff, 2004, Collins and Evans, 2008).At the international level, even if science always was an ?international enterprise? (Salomon,2006) during recent decades it has become increasingly globalized and the reorganization of?international science? presents a growing complex map. Indeed, some authors (Rosemann,2014; Moya-Anegón et al., 2013; Grauwin et al., 2012; Veugelers, 2010) talk about a newmultipolarity, particularly pointing at the decline of the formerly leading nations in the shareof international scientific production (especially the US and Western Europe), and theemergence of new regions, like BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, China). However, there existuntil today very few studies focused on the consequences of these changes on less advanced(semi-peripheral) countries and on the relationships among knowledge production centers,with a critical perspective that takes into account the emerging complex dynamics. Therefore, our aim in this chapter is to suggest an analytical framework and to present empirical data on these dynamics, as well as on the consequences that ?globalization? has on the international organization of science, analyzing the complex relations between centers and peripheries (emphasizing the plural).