MUGNI Hernan Diego
Assessment of insecticide contamination in runoff and stream water of small agricultural streams in the main soybean area of Argentina
JERGENTZ, S.; MUGNI, H.; BONETTO, C.; SCHULZ, R.
Año: 2005 p. 817 - 817
The first- and second-order streams, Brown and Horqueta, respectively, which are located in the main area of soybean production in Argentina, were examined for insecticide contamination caused by runoff from nearby soybean fields. The insecticides most widely used in Argentina (chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and endosulfan) were detected in sediments, suspended particles and water. Highest concentrations in suspended particles were 318 µg/kg for endosulfan in the stream Horqueta, while 226 µg/kg chlorpyrifos and 13.2 µ g/kg cypermethrin were measured in the stream Brown. In the Horqueta stream 150 and 53 µg/kg chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were detected in runoff sediments, respectively. Whereas cypermethrin concentrations in the suspended particles were relatively low, levels in the floodwater of Brown reached 0.7 µg/l. The highest chlorpyrifos concentration in floodwater was 0.45 µg/l in Brown. However, endosulfan was not detected in the water phase. In runoff water the highest concentrations measured were 0.3 µg/l for chlorpyrifos in Horqueta and 0.49 µg/l for cypermethrin in the Brown stream. On five sampling dates during the pesticide application period in Brown stream (2002/2003) the concentration of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in runoff and/or floodwater exceeded the water quality criteria for freshwater mentioned in this study. In three cases this insecticide concentration was measured in stream water, indicating an acute risk to aquatic life. The acute toxicityexposure-ratio (TER) for chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin also shows an acute risk for aquatic invertebrates in the Brown stream. In the Horqueta chlorpyrifos concentrations in the runoff exceeded the safety levels three times during the application period (2001/2002), potentially endangering the aquatic fauna. Effects on aquatic macroinvertebrates after insecticide contamination were reported in earlier studies in Horqueta stream.