ESPELT Maria Victoria
Extracellular ATP and adenosine in tumor microenvironment: Roles in epithelial–mesenchymal transition, cell migration, and invasion
ALVAREZ, CORA L.; TRONCOSO, MARÍA F.; ESPELT, MARÍA V.
JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY
WILEY-LISS, DIV JOHN WILEY & SONS INC
Under nonpathological conditions, the extracellular nucleotide concentration remains constant and low (nM range) because of a close balance between ATP release and ATP consumption. This balance is completely altered in cancer disease. Adenine and uridine nucleotides are found in the extracellular space of tumors in high millimolar (mM) concentrations acting as extracellular signaling molecules. In general, although uridine nucleotides may be involved in different tumor cell responses, purinergic signaling in cancer is preferentially focused on adenine nucleotides and nucleosides. Extracellular ATP can bind to specific receptors (P receptors) triggering different responses, or it can be hydrolyzed by ectoenzymes bound to cell membranes to render the final product adenosine. The latter pathway plays an important role in the increase of adenosine in tumor microenvironment. In this study, we will focus on extracellular ATP and adenosine, their effects acting as ligands of specific receptors, activating ectoenzymes, and promoting epithelial?mesenchymal transition, migration, and invasion in cancer cells. Finding the roles that these nucleotides play in tumor microenvironment may be important to design new intervention strategies in cancer therapies.