TOMAS Mabel Cristina
capítulos de libros
Temas Selectos en aceites y grasas comestibles
AOCS Press - Blucher
Año: 2011;
CHAPTER:                  PHOSPHOLIPIDS Authors: Willem van Nieuwenhuyzen*, Mabel Tomas** * Lecipro Consulting, Holanda, ** CIDCA, La Plata, Argentina Abstract Phospholipids are important biochemical intermediates in the growth and functioning of cells in plants and animals. Vegetable lecithins are commercially derived from soy beans, sunflower kernels and rape seed in four steps: hydration of the phospholipids, separation of the gums (degumming), drying and cooling. Careful processing, starting with seed quality, is required to produces lecithin of a high chemical, physical and bacteriological quality. The typical quality characteristics, phospholipid - and fatty acid compositions of lecithins vary slightly with seed origin. Current methods of analyses are described. The various phospholipids possess different hydrophilic – lipophilic properties, which are used in the formulation of emulsions. Specialty lecithins are processed by physical means (alcohol fractionation, deoiling, spray drying), enzymes (hydrolysis, esterification) and chemical reactions (acetylation, hydroxylation).  All these lecithins have unique emulsifying properties, which are exploited in a large number of emulsions. Emulsion formation and stability are also influenced by the interactions of the lecithin with other ingredients and the mixing parameters. Main food applications are chocolate, baked goods, yellow fat spreads, and agglomerated dairy and cocoa powders. The nutritional claims of bio – sourced choline supplier and liposome formation by Phosphatidylcholine fractions is of interest in health foods and supplements, while phosphatidylcholine isolates are used in pharmaceutics as excipient. In feed applications lecithin is used as emulsifier in milk replacer, agglomerated shrimp pellets and as fatty acid source in poultry feed. These applications will be described.  Chapter Set up 1. Introduction 2. Lecithin Production 3. Quality aspects and composition 4. Analytical methods 5. Emulsifying properties Lecithin properties Interactions 6. Food Applications Chocolate Baked goods Yellow fat spreads Agglomerated products Health foods and supplements 7. Pharmaceutical Applications 8. Feed Applications Milk Replacer Fish feed Nutritional source