INVESTIGADORES

RUGGIERO adriana

artículos

Título:

Are there latitudinal and altitudinal Rapoport effects in the geographic ranges of Andean passerine birds?

Autor/es:

RUGGIERO, ADRIANA; LAWTON, JOHN H.

Revista:

BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY

Editorial:

Blackwell Publshing- Publised on the behalf of the Linnean Society

Referencias:

Lugar: Oxford; Año: 1998 vol. 63 p. 283 - 304

ISSN:

0024-4066

Resumen:

We analysed the range-sizes of 835 Andean passerine species (including 414 endemics and
421 non-endemics) to test for latitudinal and altitudinal Rapoport effects (LRE and ARE).
We tested for positive range-size: latitude/altitude correlations using three different methods:
(i) Rohdes mid-point method, (ii) species sorted out by altitude, and (iii) a phylogenetic
comparative method (CAIC). Using Rohdes mid-point method, the mean latitudinal extent
of species does not follow a Rapoport pattern, but the mean latitudinal occupancy of all
passerines and non-endemics do increase with latitude. The latitudinal ranges of endemics
sorted out by altitude follow a reverse Rapoport effect, but non-endemics support the pattern.
CAIC confirms the latitudinal increase in the occupancy of non-endemics, but regressions
have low coefficients of determination. The ARE is supported by the mean altitudinal extent
of species, but the trend vanishes when controlling for geometric effects. Low-altitude species
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
of species, but the trend vanishes when controlling for geometric effects. Low-altitude species
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
of species, but the trend vanishes when controlling for geometric effects. Low-altitude species
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
of species, but the trend vanishes when controlling for geometric effects. Low-altitude species
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
CAIC confirms the latitudinal increase in the occupancy of non-endemics, but regressions
have low coefficients of determination. The ARE is supported by the mean altitudinal extent
of species, but the trend vanishes when controlling for geometric effects. Low-altitude species
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
of species, but the trend vanishes when controlling for geometric effects. Low-altitude species
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
of species, but the trend vanishes when controlling for geometric effects. Low-altitude species
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
of species, but the trend vanishes when controlling for geometric effects. Low-altitude species
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
CAIC confirms the latitudinal increase in the occupancy of non-endemics, but regressions
have low coefficients of determination. The ARE is supported by the mean altitudinal extent
of species, but the trend vanishes when controlling for geometric effects. Low-altitude species
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
of species, but the trend vanishes when controlling for geometric effects. Low-altitude species
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
of species, but the trend vanishes when controlling for geometric effects. Low-altitude species
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
of species, but the trend vanishes when controlling for geometric effects. Low-altitude species
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
CAIC confirms the latitudinal increase in the occupancy of non-endemics, but regressions
have low coefficients of determination. The ARE is supported by the mean altitudinal extent
of species, but the trend vanishes when controlling for geometric effects. Low-altitude species
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
of species, but the trend vanishes when controlling for geometric effects. Low-altitude species
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation in range-sizes at a continental scale. We show how different patterns
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
can emerge from applying different criteria to the analysis of data.
occupy about the same proportion of the available altitudinal space as do high-altitude ones.
Our analyses suggest that latitude and altitude have low explanatory power for understanding
the spatial variation