GARCIA adolfo Martin
congresos y reuniones científicas
Functional and anatomical organization of translation routes in the bilingual brain
Nueva York
Conferencia; 40th LACUS Conference; 2013
Institución organizadora:
Lingiustic Association of Canda and the United States
The ability to translate between languages is one of the distinguishing traits of bilingualism. This complex skill has been studied from several perspectives, such as linguistics, psycholinguistics, and cognitive psychology (Hurtado Albir 2001; Pöchhacker 2004). However, the study of the neural basis of translation has received comparatively little attention, and remains as ?one of the chief known unknowns in translation studies? (Tymozcko 2012, 83). Neuroimaging studies on translation proper (as opposed to translation priming or bilingual lexical or semantic decision) conducted so far seem not to reach the dozen. Moreover, evidence on translation phenomena subsequent to brain damage has been produced only sparsely. While the available neuroimaging evidence in translation routes has been critically reviewed recently (García in press), no comprehensive, hypothesis-driven review of the relevant clinical evidence is available in the literature. Previous studies have offered a few anecdotal illustrations of, and brief comments on, different translation neuropathologies (Fabbro 1999, 2001; Ijalba et al. 2004). However, they have overlooked available (though scant) quantitative data and failed to provide integrative neurofunctional or neuroanatomical interpretations of the evidence. In an attempt to cover such a gap, this paper offers a theoretical interpretation of the dissociations observed in twenty-one cases of brain-lesioned bilinguals exhibiting translation disorders. Specifically, three neurofunctional and three neuroanatomical hypotheses are derived from the Revised Hierarchical Model (Kroll & Stewart 1994, Kroll et al., 2010) and the Declarative/Procedural Model (Paradis 2009; Ullman 2001), respectively. Consistent with relevant predictions, the evidence suggests that there are neurofunctionally independent routes for translation, as opposed to monolingual speech production; backward, as opposed to forward, translation; and form-based, as opposed to conceptually mediated, translation. Available data further indicates that word and sentence translation are critically subserved by posterior brain areas implicated in declarative memory, and by frontobasal areas implicated in procedural memory, respectively. In addition, translation routes appear to be entirely left-lateralized. Fabbro, Franco. 1999. The Neurolinguistics of Bilingualism: An Introduction. Hove, Sussex: Psychology Press. Fabbro, Franco. 2001. The bilingual brain: Cerebral representation of languages. Brain and Language 79: 211-222. García, Adolfo M. in press. Brain activity during translation: A review of the neuroimaging evidence as testing ground for clinically-based hypotheses. Journal of Neurolinguistics. Hurtado Albir, Amparo. 2001. Traducción y Traductología: Introducción a la Traductología. Madrid: Cátedra. Ijalba, Elizabeth, Obler, Loraine K. and Chengappa, Shyamala. 2004. Bilingual aphasia, in The Handbook of Bilingualism, eds. Tej K. Bathia and William C. Ritchie. Malden: Blackwell: 71-89. Kroll, Judith F. and Stewart, Erika. 1994. Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations. Journal of Memory and Language 33: 149-174. Paradis, Michel. 2009. Declarative and Procedural Determinants of Second Languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Pöchhacker, Franz. 2004. Introducing Interpreting Studies. New York: Routledge. Tymoczko, Maria. 2012. The neuroscience of translation. Target 24(1): 83-102. Ullman, Michael T. 2001. The neural basis of lexicon and grammar in first and second language: The declarative/procedural model. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 4(1): 105-122.