Phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of the South American mayfly genus Brasilocaenis (Insecta: Ephemeroptera: Caenidae)
LIMA, LUCAS R.C.; MOLINERI, CARLOS; VIEIRA, LEANDRO M.; PINHEIRO, ULISSES; SALLES, FREDERICO F.
Brasilocaenis Puthz, 1975 is a South American representativegenus of Caenidae (Ephemeroptera). Except for the very distinct malegenitalia, the species of this genus are morphologically similar to SouthAmerican Caenis species. To analyse the relationship among Brasilocaenisand related genera, we used morphological characters of both nymphs andadults with cladistic methods. This first phylogenetic proposal ofBrasilocaenis is based on a matrix of 20 species and 35 charactersanalysed under implied weights (k=3), including 6 species ofBrasilocaenis and 14 species of different genera (Alloretochus, Caenis,Clypeocaenis and Tasmanocaenis). The analysis supports the monophyly ofBrasilocaenis by a unique synapomorphy (forceps fused with the styligerplate). South American Caenis form a paraphyletic group, withBrasilocaenis inter-nested among Caenis species. A biogeographicalanalysis was conducted (spatial analysis of vicariance) based ondistributional records for each species. Seven vicariant events arefound, the most important are: (i) a north/south separation coincidentwith a split of the amazon and atlantic forests, and (ii) two west-eastseparations in tropical South America indicating different historicalevents. Additionally, Brasilocaenis atawallpa sp. n. is described frommale imagos from Colombia.