FRANCO nora Viviana
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An insight into human mobility in South Patagonia through information from lithic raw materials availability areas, artifacts distribution and characteristics, Linkage Pathways and Least Cost Paths analysis.
Workshop; 12th International Symposion on Knappable Materials; 2019
Institución organizadora:
Hungarian National Museum
Detailed recording of the extension of potential secondary sources of lithic raw materials is important to understand human mobility and circulation, especially in regards to hunter-gatherer societies. Here we will analyze the case of the area located between the Southern Deseado Massif and the Upper and Middle Santa Cruz River Basin (Patagonia, Argentina), which has had a discontinuous human occupation between the Pleistocene-Holocene transition and the Late Holocene. Three secondary sources of black obsidian with a similar geochemical composition and differences in the size of the cobbles available have been found at the North of our study area and to its Northwest. Their primary source remains unknown. Siliceous rocks of very good and excellent quality have been recovered both as primary and secondary sources at the Southern Deseado Massif, only some of them have a localized distribution, which has allowed us to establish general availability areas. Although sampling has been carried out in the plateaus and basaltic canyons to the South of the study area, none of these raw materials have been discovered until the moment. In this case, we analyze the frequency, size and characteristics of artifacts made from black obsidian and other siliceous rocks recovered between the Southern Deseado Massif and the North of the Santa Cruz River Basin. Results obtained are compared with models developed using Geographical Information Systems in order to understand human circulation and utilization of these spaces. We use topography based Linkage Pathways between ecological zones which may have attracted human populations in these semiarid environments, as well as Least Cost Paths analysis between archaeological sites, which are based on the slope, presence of basaltic plateaus, water sources and snow load. Results are complemented with those coming from other lines of evidence.