BONETTO Carlos Alberto
Removal efficiency of a constructed wetland for wastewater treatment according to vegetation dominance.
MAINE A,; SUÑE N,; HADAD H,; SANCHEZ G,; BONETTO, C.
Lugar: Amsterdam; Año: 2007 vol. 68 p. 1105 - 1113
A free water surface wetland was built to treat wastewater containing metals (Cr, Ni and Zn) and nutrients from a tool factory in Santo Tomé, Santa Fe, Argentina. Eichhornia crassipes became dominant and covered about 80% of the surface throughout the first year, and decreased progressively until its disappearance. When water depth was lowered Typha domingensis steadily increased plant cover and attained 30% of the surface by the end of the study. While E. crassipes was dominant, the wetland retained 62% of the incoming Cr and 48% of the Ni. NO3 and NO2 , were also removed (65% and 78%, respectively), while dissolved inorganic phosphate (i-Pdiss) and NH4 were not removed. Zn was below 50 µg l-1 in both the influent and effluent. Metal concentration in the sediments did not increase and retention was mediated through macrophytes uptake. During the period of E. crassipes decline the wetland retained 49% of the incoming Cr, 45% of Ni, 58% NO3 , 94% NO2 , 58% NH4 and 47% i-Pdiss. Cr, Ni and Zn in the bottom sediment increased in the inlet but not in the outlet. Since T. domingensis became dominant, retention was 58% Cr, 48% Ni and 64% i-Pdiss, while 79% NO3 , 84% NO2 and 13% NH4 were removed. Metals in the bottom sediment increased in the inlet. In spite of the significant growth of E. crassipes at the beginning, T. domingensis remained after most of the transplanted macrophytes had disappeared. Macrophyte disappearance could be related to the overall toxicity of several environmental constrains as high pH and conductivity, metal concentration, and sulphide presence.