Nasal immunization with a L. lactis-derived trans-sialidase antigen plus c-di-AMP protects against acute oral T. cruzi infection
PACINI, MARIA FLORENCIA; GONZÁLEZ, FLORENCIA BELÉN; DINATALE, BRENDA; BULFONI BALBI, CAMILA; VILLAR, SILVINA RAQUEL; FARRÉ, CECILIA; LUPI, GIULIANA; ESPARIZ, MARTÍN; BLANCATO, VÍCTOR SEBASTIÁN; MAGNI, CHRISTIAN; MARCIPAR, IVÁN; PÉREZ, ANA ROSA
ELSEVIER SCI LTD
The new generation of vaccines for Chagas disease, are focused to induce both humoral and cellular response to effectively control Trypanosoma cruzi parasites. The administration of vaccine formulations intranasally has the advantage over parenteral routes that can induce a specific response at mucosal and systemic levels. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the immunogenicity and prophylactic effectiveness of two Trans-sialidase (TS)-based mucosal vaccines against T. cruzi administered intranasally.Vaccines consisted of a recombinant fragment of TS expressed in Lactococcus lactis formulated in two different adjuvants. The first, was an immunostimulant particle (ISPA, an ISCOMATRIX-like adjuvant), while the second was the dinucleotide c-di-AMP, which have shown immunostimulant properties at the mucosal level. BALB/c mice were immunized intranasally (3 doses, one every two weeks) with each formulation (TS + ISPA or TS + c-di-AMP) and with TS alone or vehicle (saline solution) as controls. Fifteen days after the last immunization, both TS + ISPA or TS + c-di-AMP induced an evident systemic humoral and cellular response, as judged by the increased plasma anti-TS IgG2a titers and IgG2a/IgG1 ratio and enhanced cellular response against TS. Plasma derived antibodies from TS + c-di-AMP also inhibit in vitro the invasion capacity of T. cruzi. Furthermore, specific secretory IgA was more enhanced in TS + c-di-AMP group. Protective efficacy was proved in vaccinated animals by an oral T. cruzichallenge.Parasitemia control was only achieved by animals vaccinated with TS + c-di-AMP, despite all vaccinates groups showed enhanced CD8+IFN-c+ T cell numbers. In addition, it was reflected during the acute phase in a significant reduction of tissue parasite load, clinical manifestations and diminished tissue damage. The better prophylactic capacity elicited by TS + c-di-AMP was related to the induction of neutralizing plasma antibodies and augmented levels of mucosal IgA since TS + ISPA and TS + c-di-AMP groups displayed similar immunogenicity and CD8+IFN-c+ T-cell response. Therefore, TS + c-di-AMP formulation appears as a promising strategy for prophylaxis against T. cruzi.