ANCAROLA MarÍa eugenia
The challenging world of extracellular RNAs of helminth parasites
CUCHER, MARCELA A.; ANCAROLA, MARÍA EUGENIA; KAMENETZKY, LAURA
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Año: 2021 vol. 134 p. 150 - 160
In the last years, cell free or extracellular RNAs (ex-RNAs) have emerged as novel intercellular messengers between animal cells, including pathogens. In infectious diseases, ex-RNAs represent novel players in the host-pathogen and pathogen-pathogen interplays and have been described in parasitic helminths from the three major taxonomic groups: nematodes, trematodes and cestodes. Altogether, it is estimated that approximately 30 percent of the world´s population is infected with helminths, which cause debilitating diseases and syndromes. Ex-RNAs are protected from degradation by encapsulation in extracellular vesicles (EV), or association to proteins or lipoproteins, and have been detected in the excretion/secretion products of helminth parasites, with EV as the preferred extracellular compartment under study. EV is the generic term used to describe a heterogenous group of subcellular membrane-bound particles, with varying sizes, biogenesis, density and composition. However, recent data suggests that this is not the only means used by helminth parasites to secrete RNAs since ex-RNAs can also be found in EV-depleted samples. Furthermore, the use of pathogen ex-RNAs as biomarkers promise the advent of new diagnostic tools though this field is still in early stages of exploration. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of vesicular and non-vesicular ex-RNAs secretion in helminth parasites, their potential as biomarkers and the evidence of their role in parasite and host reciprocal communication, together with unanswered questions in the field.