ROUSSEAUX Maria Cecilia
Fatty acid profiles of varietal virgin olive oils (Olea europaea L.) from mature orchards in warm arid valleys of Northwest Argentina (La Rioja).
RONDANINI, D. P.; CASTRO, D. N.; SEARLES, P.S.; ROUSSEAUX, M. C.
GRASAS Y ACEITES
INST GRASA SUS DERIVADOS
Año: 2011 vol. 62 p. 399 - 409
The olive industry in Northwest Argentina has experienced substantial growth during the past two decades, and mature orchards are now producing high quality virgin olive oil for export. To assess the fatty acid profiles of the main varietal olive oils, 563 oil samples from 10 commercial extraction facilities including 17 varieties cultivated in the province of La Rioja and other surrounding areas were analyzed over four years (2005-2008). Olive varieties were ranked according to oleic acid content as low (<55%; Arbequina, Arauco), intermediate (55-65%; Barnea, Frantoio) or high (>65%; Manzanilla, Empeltre, Leccino, Coratina, Changlot, Picual). Using data from this study and the published literature, the fatty acid composition of Spanish (Arbequina, Picual) and Italian (Coratina, Frantoio) varieties indicated consistently lower oleic acid contents when the varieties were grown in NW Argentina versus the Mediterranean. For Arbequina, the oleic content (%) decreased with increasing temperature during oil accumulation (-2 % per °C) based on data from 6 locations from 2005-2008. The classification of varieties by oleic acid content should be useful in the selection of virgin olive oils for corrective blending and for choosing varieties for new orchards in order to meet the requirements of the International Olive Oil Council. Differences in fatty acid composition between NW Argentina and the Mediterranean Basin are most likely to be related to a genotype by environment interaction, and the negative role of the seasonal mean temperature during oil accumulation will need further physiological research.