Hyoid skeleton, its related muscles, and morphological novelties in the frog Lepidobatrachus (Anura, Ceratophryidae)
FABREZI, MARISSA; LOBO, FERNANDO JOSE
ANATOMICAL RECORD-ADVANCES IN INTEGRATIVE ANATOMY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY
WILEY-LISS, DIV JOHN WILEY & SONS INC
Lugar: NewJersey, US; Año: 2009 vol. 292 p. 1700 - 1712
Many traits of the skull of ceratophryines are related to the capture of large prey independently of aquatic or terrestrial feeding. Herein, detailed descriptions of the development of hyoid skeleton and the anatomy of muscles responsible for hyoid and tongue movements in Lepidobatrachus laevis and L. llanensis are provided and compared with those of other neobatrachians. The aquatic Lepidobatrachus has special features in its hyoid skeleton that integrates a set of derived features convergent with the conditions observed in non-neobatrachian anurans and morphological novelties (e.g., dorsal dermal hyoid ossification) that deviate from the generalized pattern found in most frogs. Further, reduction of fibers of muscles of buccal floor, reduction or loss of hyoid muscles (m. geniohyoideus rama lateralis, anterior pair of m. petrohyoideus posteriores), small tongue, and simplified tongue muscles are also morphological deviations from the pattern of terrestrial ceratophryines, and other aquatic ceratophryids (e.g.,Telmatobius) that seem to be related to feeding underwater. The historical derived features shared with Chacophrys and Ceratophrys involved in megalophagy are conserved in Lepidobatrachus and morphological changes in the hyoglossal apparatus define a unique functional complex among anurans.Anat Rec, 292:17001712, 2009. VVC 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.