GIMENEZ Paula Victoria
congresos y reuniones científicas
Brief intervention for alcohol use in pregnant women: evidence of newborns health indicators in Argentina
Santiago de Chile
Conferencia; 15° Conferencia de INEBRIA; 2018
Institución organizadora:
International Network on Brief Interventions for Alcohol & Other Drugs (INEBRIA)
Background: Alcohol is a teratogen that reaches the fetus through the placenta and increases the risk of fetal death, spontaneous abortions, under birth weight, premature birth, low gestational age, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. These consequences are 100% preventable if no alcohol is consumed during pregnancy. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of a brief intervention (BI) taking newborns health indicators as an objective outcome measure. Materials and methods: We screened 503 pregnant women up to 26 weeks of gestation attending Public Health Centers of the Municipality of General Pueyrredón, Argentina, during 2016. We performed a probabilistic sampling, with random assignment between two groups: alcohol screening and BI or alcohol screening and brief advice (BA). After childbirth, we obtained health indicators from the newborns: birth weight in kilograms, gestational age at birth in weeks, and APGAR score in a range from 1 to 10 (BI group = n = 77; BA group = n = 72). In addition, we included a third control group (EC) of newborns whose mothers did not participate in the alcohol screening groups (n = 150). We compared newborns health indicators from BI, BA and EC groups with each other using the Wilcoxon Ranke Test and the Cliff´s Delta analysis as a measure of effect size. Analyses were performed with the R Project for Statistical Computing, version 3.4.1. Results: We registered statistically significant differences in the birth weight (p < .05) and gestational age at birth (p < .001) between BI and BA groups compared with the third control group (EC). No statistically significant differences were found in the values of the APGAR score The effect size of the differences found was modest. We did not find statistically significant differences in any of the three indicators (birth weight, APGAR and gestational age at birth) among BI and BA groups. Conclusions: Our results suggest that alcohol screening and brief intervention or brief advice among pregnant women significantly reduce the newborns? risk of suffering some of the consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure.