LASCANO Cecilia Ines
Organophosphorus Insecticides Affect Normal Polyamine Metabolism in Amphibian Embryogenesis
LASCANO CECILIA; FERRARI ANA; GAUNA LIDIA; COCCA CLAUDIA; COCHÓN ADRIANA; VERRENGIA, NOEMÍ; VENTURINO ANDRÉS
PESTICIDE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY
ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
Lugar: Amsterdam; Año: 2011 vol. 101 p. 240 - 247
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the concentration- and time-dependent effects of the organophosphorus insecticides malathion and azinphos-methyl on polyamine metabolism, and relate them to normal and altered embryonic development of the common toad Rhinella arenarum. Control embryos showed that the higher polyamines spermidine and spermine acquired importance with respect to the diamine putrescine as embryonic development progressed. The activity of ornithine decarboxylase significantly decreased in complete operculum embryos. Continuous exposure to malathion caused a decrease in polyamine levels during embryonic development. However, there was an increase in putrescine levels in complete operculum embryos exposed to a sublethal concentration of the insecticide. Embryos exposed to malathion displayed a decrease in fresh weight and size, along with an increase in the number of malformed individuals. R. arenarum embryos exposed to a lethal concentration of azinphos-methyl showed an increase in putrescine levels and a decrease in spermidine and spermine levels, accompanied by an increase in ornithine decarboxylase activity. In conclusion, as the embryonic development of the toad R. arenarum progresses, polyamine metabolism shifts to higher polyamine levels with a more preponderant contribution of spermidine and spermine with respect to putrescine and involves a dramatic change in ornithine decarboxylase activity, one of the key regulatory enzymes of the pathway. Organophosphorus insecticides are capable of altering polyamine metabolism, slowing embryo development in parallel with a reduction in spermidine and spermine levels. An increase in the oxidative degradation of polyamines might be involved in the toxic action of organophosphorus insecticides and might also be related to other effects such as teratogenesis.