CHIARINI Franco Ezequiel
Geographical pattern and ploidy levels of the weed Solanum elaeagnifolium (Solanaceae) from Argentina
SCALDAFERRO, M., CHIARINI, F., SANTIÑAQUE, F. F., BERNARDELLO, G., MOSCONE, E. A.
GENETIC RESOURCES AND CROP EVOLUTION
Año: 2012 vol. 59 p. 1833 - 1847
A total of 106 samples taken from natural Argentinean populations of the weedy Solanum elaeagnifolium (subgenus Leptostemonum) were studied cytologically to understand the impact of the different ploidy levels in its distribution and origin. Classical Feulgen staining was employed to determine mitotic chromosome numbers in all samples. 2C nuclear DNA content was determined by means of PI flow cytometry in eight samples of different ploidy levels. Principal component analysis and GIS tools were employed to compare altitude, annual precipitation and annual mean temperature among accessions. Three cytotypes were found: diploid (2n = 24) which is widespread, tetraploid (2n = 48) centered in western and southern Argentina, and hexaploid (2n = 72) which predominates in central Argentina extending as well to the east. The annual precipitation is significantly different between tetraploids and hexaploids. Cx-values ranged from 1.231 to 1.275 pg, with statistical differences (of about 24.550.9 Mbp, p B 0.05) among accessions. Diploids are the most widespread cytotype and have adapted to a number of very different habitats. Tetraploids live in arid or semi-arid regions with a mean annual rainfall less than 500 mm. Hexaploids are successful in colonizing wetter areas, where no tetraploids were found. Thus, the distribution of cytotypes may be associated with habitat differences, particularly soil moisture. The observed cytotype pattern and the differences in DNA content suggest multiple places of origin for the polyploidy of S. elaeagnifolium in Argentina.