congresos y reuniones científicas
Life cycle assessment of the incorporation of active and passive solar technologies in social interest housing in Argentina: photovoltaic power generation, water heating and bioclimatic design
Evento virtual
Conferencia; CILCA 2021; 2021
Institución organizadora:
Faced with the need to minimize the impacts produced by conventional heating, cooling, lighting and hot water supply systems in residential buildings, a strong trend has emerged in the design of housing that try to find the balance between passive and active strategies for the energy saving. These housings take advantage of the climatic characteristics of each region in order to increase thermal and energy efficiency, understanding this also as a possibility of saving in economic expenses associated with the consumption of services. There is a variety of passive strategies, the effectiveness and timeliness of which depend heavily on the climate. Some examples are the application of envelope thermal insulation, solar uptake through transparent surfaces in winter,solar blocking in summer, green roofs, the construction of a Trombe-Michel wall, etc. As for active strategies, the generation of photovoltaic electricity and the incorporation of solar collectors for heating sanitary and heatingwater stand out.This work has been developed within the framework of the GEF AR-G1002 Project ?Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Argentine Social Housing?, which aims to improve energy efficiency in social housing and, thus, contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and improve the quality of life of its inhabitants.The project covered eight provinces and six bioclimatic regions of the country, and in each of them the respective Provincial Housing Institute-IPV developed 4 housing prototypes, starting from a typical design (reference housing), and increasing the levels of improvement by incorporating, for example, thermal insulation in walls and roofs, better windows, new materials, new designs and active solar technologies, specifically photovoltaic solar panels and solar collectors.A series of comparative life cycle analyses were carried out on the designs of each province, totaling 32 housing prototypes evaluated. The study was developed based on the recommendations of the ISO 14040 and 14044 standards, in order to have an inventory and environmental profile of the materials, applied technologies and prototypes. We worked with a common modular scheme, addressing the following stages: acquisition of raw materials, transportation to the manufacturing site, manufacturing, transportation to the construction site, construction / installation, housings occupation (with exclusive consideration of energy use). The primary data were provided by the IPVs of the involved provinces and supplemented with information obtained through consultations with professionals in the sector. Secondary information was obtained from databases and, in most cases, it was adapted to local conditions. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) was evaluated with the IPCC 2013 method and the Cumulative Energy Consumption (CEC) based on the lower calorific value.The analysis, which takes into consideration all stages from the extraction of raw materials to construction and commissioning, shows that the incorporation of energy efficiency, passive and active strategies produces an increase in the GWP, which vary according to the province and the housing prototype, being higher for the most efficient ones. Compared to the reference prototypes, these increases range from a minimum of 6.44% for prototype 1 in Mendoza, to almost 45% for prototype 4 in Tucumán. There are also increases in the CEC, rangingfrom 3.79 % for prototype 1 in Mendoza to 9815 % for prototype 4 in Buenos Aires.When the operation stage of the houses is also taken into account, during their entire useful life, the results are reversed, finding in all cases a decrease in the GWP, ranging from 7 % for prototype 1 in Formosa, to 96 % for prototype 4 in Salta. In the case of CEC, reductions ranging from a minimum of 6.1% for prototype 1 in Formosa to a maximum of 99.32% for prototype 4 in Salta were achieved.The study addressed is, without a doubt, unprecedented in the country, due to its scope, opportunity and depth in the sector. Carrying out similar works, which involve the construction of local life cycle inventories of different products and their subsequent analysis, are key elements to consolidate the path towards sustainability.In this way, designers, developers and / or producers will be able to contribute and / or have information associated with the environmental implications of the different products, and thus, provide the decision maker with objective and science-based tools to help their management.