DE ANGELO Carlos Daniel
congresos y reuniones científicas
Gastro-intestinal parasites and commensals as an index of population and ecosystem health: prevalence and distribution patterns in Puerto Iguazú, Misiones
Santa Fe
Jornada; XVI Jornadas Argentinas de Microbiología y III Congreso Bioquímico del Litoral; 2015
Institución organizadora:
Colegio de Bioquímicos de Santa Fé - Colegio de Bioquímicos de Entre Ríos - Asociación Argentina de Microbiología
Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infections in tropical and subtropical regions of developing countries, and they are included within the group of neglected tropical diseases. They range from asymptomatic cases to illnesses with serious and long lasting implications in children and immunocompromised people. North-eastern Argentina presents socioeconomic and environmental conditions that favor the development of these diseases. However, the existing knowledge about the situation in these regions is very limited, and only the most proximate causes are explored, which does not necessarily show the complex ecological and social context that determine the origin, prevalence and maintenance of these parasites. Likewise, although gastro-intestinal commensals do not cause diseases in humans, they are good markers of oral-fecal contamination by polluted food or water, and therefore they play a key role to fully understanding co-infections. We conducted a cross-sectional survey between 2013 and 2015 to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and commensals across Puerto Iguazú. Overall, 246 fecal samples from children under age 14 were surveyed using sugar flotation, concentration techniques, and specific stains. A questionnaire was also administered to identify risk factors associated with the frequency of intestinal parasites in the study population. Furthermore, stool feces from 530 dogs and soil samples from 232 different sites of the municipality were analyzed in order to evaluate parasitic environmental contamination. Landscape and local variables were employed in generalized linear models to evaluate the associated factors that explain parasite presence, and to perform risk maps of intestinal parasite infections. Considering all the samples analyzed, 71.5% of them were positive for the presence of at least one parasite. In total, parasitic structures corresponding to 16 genera of parasitic organisms (six nematode, four genera of tapeworms and six genera of protozoa) were recovered. Gender matching between environmental samples and samples of children was detected. Cases of polyparasitism in dog feces and human feces reached 30.4% and 24%, respectively. Individuals with up to five different parasites were detected in both. The results showed high parasitological contamination in the municipality and the 50% of detected genera have zoonotic potential and represent risks to human and animal health. Preliminary maps of parasite presence and richness allow us to identify municipality areas which present increased potential risk of parasite infection. Based on their analysis we selected the most vulnerable zone to state the prevalence of parasites by monitoring child and animal population. The preliminary data obtained in the current study showed a high prevalence of intestinal parasites in Iguazú. Solutions from an integrative approach are needed in order to minimize the sharp division among the disciplines in the fields of human and animal health, through the common conceptualization and development of strategic responses to these problems.