PASCUAL Miguel Alberto
capítulos de libros
Reconfiguring Water Governance for Resilient Social-Ecological Systems in South America
TRIMBLE, M.; JACOBI, P.; OLIVIER, T.; PASCUAL, M.A.; ZURBRIGGEN, C.; GARRIDO, L.; MAZZEO, N.
Water Resilience. Management and Governance in Times of Change
Año: 2021; p. 113 - 135
The Global South is usually underrepresented in comparative water governance studies. Latin America has abundant water resources but is the most unequal continent in terms of access to water. Water governance in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay has been gradually moving from a conventional-centralized mode towards a decentralized, participatory and potentially adaptive approach, although at different paces. The purpose of this chapter is to analyze the main institutional changes in water governance during the past few decades in these three neighbouring South American countries, and how these changes have generated attributes which confer resilience to watersheds as social-ecological systems. The findings show that the water governance reform started with changes or incorporations in the countries? constitutions (Brazil - 1988, Argentina - 1994, Uruguay ? 2004). Another common trend is the government interest to adopt integrated water resources management principles, such as the river basin approach (the basin as the planning unit) and the formation of river basin organizations, including participatory forums or boards involving government institutions, users and civil society. Brazil shows clear signs of polycentric governance, while polycentricity is more limited in Argentina and Uruguay (e.g. due to fragmented competencies), although there exists some enabling legislation.