ISLA Maria Ines
capítulos de libros
Advances in production and properties validation of multifunctional ingredients from Argentine food fruits to modulate oxidative stress and inflammation
Current advances for development of functionsl foods modulating inflammation and stress oxidative
Año: 2022; p. 365 - 377
The health benefits of fruits in the human diet are well known and are supported by strong scientific evidence(Karasawa & Mohan, 2018). Fruits have historically been considered important sources of dietary nutrients. Today,they are also recognized as sources of a wide variety of phytochemicals that can benefit health. Such is the case ofphenolic compounds; many studies have demonstrated their potential as antioxidant and antiinflammatory agents(Karasawa & Mohan, 2018; Xiao et al., 2011). Antioxidant compounds act by several mechanisms such as inhibitionof generation and scavenging activity against reactive oxygen species (ROS) (Kim et al., 2012). Oxidativestress is due to the production of ROS, increased lipid peroxidation, and impairment of antioxidant enzymaticdefenses, such as superoxide dismutase or glutathione peroxidase or a combination of these factors (Yubero-Serrano et al., 2013) . ROS are molecules characterized by an unpaired electron in an atomic orbital, being highlyunstable, such as hydroxyl radical (HO2), superoxide anion radical (O22), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxideradical (NO.) and others. In the human body, the ROS molecules are produced in the mitochondria, peroxisomes,in phagocytosis processes, ischemia, or inflammatory diseases. They are exacerbated by exposure to stress conditionssuch as cigarette smoking, ultraviolet radiation, air pollutants, industrial chemicals, among others(Phaniendra et al., 2015). ROS can react and damage complex cellular molecules such as lipids, proteins, or DNA,accompanied by the appearance of numerous pathological disturbances known as chronic noncommunicable diseases(NCDs), between them, the inflammatory processes, cardiovascular disorders, metabolic syndrome or carcinogenesis.For example, lipid peroxidation leads to the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), and increased levelsof MDA can induce the increased expression of proinflammatory factors, resulting in systemic stress (Srikanthanet al., 2016). The body counteracts the oxidative damage by activating antioxidant systems (enzymatic and nonenzymatic),occurring stable molecules able to donate an electron to the free radical, neutralizing it and reducingROS damage. However, it is also necessary to supply other antioxidants in the diet to strengthen the antioxidantcapacity.