ALVAREZ Luis Ignacio
Interference with P-glycoprotein improves ivermectin activity against adult resistant nematodes in sheep
LIFSCHITZ, A.; ENTROCASSO, C.; ALVAREZ, L.; LLOBERAS, M.; BALLENT, M.; MANAZZA, J.; VIRKEL, G.; BORDA, B.; LANUSSE, C.
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
The in vivo co-administration of ivermectin (IVM) with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) modulator agents has been shown to enhance the systemic availability of the antiparasitic drug. However, there is not sufficient evidence on the impact that this type of drug-drug interaction may have on the in vivo efficacy against resistant nematodes in ruminant species. The current work reports on the effects of loperamide (LPM), a P-gp modulating agent, on both IVM kinetic behaviour and anthelmintic activity in infected lambs. Eighteen (18) lambs naturally infected with IVM resistant gastrointestinal nematodes were allocated into three (3) experimental groups. Group A remained as untreated control. Animals in Groups B and C received IVM (200 µg/kg, subcutaneously) either alone or co-administered with LPM (0.2 mg/kg, twice every 12 h), respectively. Individual faecal samples were collected from experimental animals at days -1 and 14 post-treatment to perform the faecal eggs count reduction test (FECRT). Blood samples were collected between 0 and 14 days post-treatment and IVM plasma concentrations were determined by HPLC. Additionally, at day 14 post-treatment, animals from all experimental groups were sacrificed and adult gastrointestinal nematode counts were performed. FECRT values increased from 79 (IVM alone) to 96 % (IVM+LPM). Haemonchus contortus showed to be highly resistant to IVM. The IVM alone treatment was completely ineffective (0 % efficacy) against adult H. contortus. This efficacy value increased up to 72.2% in the presence of LPM. The efficacy against Trichostrongylus colubriformis increased from 77.9 % (IVM alone) to 96.3 % (IVM+LPM). The described favorable tendency towards improved anthelmintic efficacy was in agreement with the enhanced IVM plasma availability (P<0.05) and prolonged elimination half-life (P<0.05) induced by LPM in infected lambs. A LPM-induced P-gp modulation increases IVM systemic exposure in the host but also it may reduce P-gp efflux transport over-expressed in target resistant nematodes.