IANIGLA   20881
INSTITUTO ARGENTINO DE NIVOLOGIA, GLACIOLOGIA Y CIENCIAS AMBIENTALES
Unidad Ejecutora - UE
congresos y reuniones científicas
Título:
Monitoring glaciers in Argentina-Status report
Autor/es:
LYDIA E. ESPIZUA
Lugar:
Zermatt
Reunión:
Workshop; WGMS General Assembly of the National Correspondents including a Workshop. Glacier Monitoring Strategy. Current Status and Challenges.; 2010
Institución organizadora:
World Glacier Monitoring Service.
Resumen:
Glacier changes are key indicators of climate change and a major source of water for the development and sustainability of populations and ecosystems, especially in arid and semiarid regions of Argentina. The aim of this abstract is to present un update of glacier inventories, glacier fluctuations and mass balance data in some glaciers of the Argentina Andes between 17º and 55ºS over the past ~100 years. In selected glaciers the chronology of the glaciers extends to the Little Ice Age (LIA). The Andean mountain ranges in this transect, present general north-south orientation. The variation in size and occurrence of glaciers is a result of the interaction of topography and climate. The topographical system shows strong contrast in altitude and width and comprises a considerable climatic range creating different environments for the formation of glaciers. Following Lliboutry, the Andes are divided in the Desert Andes (17º30’S–31ºS), Central Andes (31ºS–36ºS), North Patagonian Andes (36º–45°S) and the South Patagonian Andes that contain all glaciers south of 45ºS. Early inventories are briefly presented and new inventories are also mentioned. The debris covered ice is clearly predominant north of 34º30’S, and to the south the ice free of debris is by far the most important glaciological component. Information of detailed glacier inventory and glacier fluctuations in the Desert Andes is very scarce and it is limited to the 20th century. At 29º20’S, an inventory covering 100 km² showed that the glacierized area lost about 12% in 1959–2005 and the overall mass balance in 2007/2009 was negative. Also, new glacier inventories at 28º–30ºS were recently published. Studies about glacier fluctuations since the end of the 19th century or the beginning of the 20th century to 2007 are more abundant in the Central Andes (33º–35ºS). The Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum advance occurred between cal. yr 1550 and 1720 AD, and a readvance occurred around cal. yr 1830 AD. The frontal variations of selected glaciers of different sizes showed a negative trend from the end of the 19th century or the beginning of the 20th century to 2007. Some of these glaciers experienced minor advances in the 1980s and 1990s, which could be related with strong warm ENSO events during these decades. It is interesting to note that the glaciers in the Aconcagua area (33ºS) and in the Río del Plomo basin (32º57’S) lost about 30% of the glacierized area in the last hundred years. In the Glaciar Piloto Este (32º27’S) the mass balance series shows a very negative trend in the 1979–2003 period. Detailed knowledge about the distribution and characteristics of surging glaciers is fundamental for assessing risks from glacier hazards. Glaciar Horcones Inferior (32º40’S), and the Glaciar Grande del Nevado (32º57’S) are well documented cases of a surging glaciers. The Glaciar Laguna (34º30’S) advanced in 1970–1982 while the glaciers in the Atuel basin retreated, suggesting a surging event. In Northern Patagonia, Monte Tronador (41º10’S) is covered by an icecap that feeds several glaciers flowing into Chile and Argentina. Glaciar Frías has been dated by dendro-geomorphological studies and at least nine events were identified during the past millennium. The maximum LIA extension was tree-ring dated to 1638. After this period, glacier shrinkage has prevailed throughout the 20th century. In Southern Patagonia, the number and extent of glaciers increases significantly. The SPI is ~370 km long from north to south. In 1944/45 the SPI covered 13,500 km2 and diminished to 12,500 km2 in 2009, due to the negative mass balance of the last decades. The most studied glacier is the Glaciar Perito Moreno, but also the nearby Ameghino and Mayo glaciers. The Perito Moreno is a calving glacier that advanced from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, and then remained stable. Also, five small glaciers have been studied near the northeast margin of the SPI (ca. 49ºS) and the LIA maximum position was dated to the late 1500s–early 1600s. Relatively synchronous advances occurred at most glaciers in the early 1700s. All glaciers show advances mostly concentrated between the mid-19th and early 20th centuries. Besides, a new inventory of glaciers between 49º–49º30’S was recently compiled. In the Andes of Tierra del Fuego a preliminary inventory of glaciers, was based on satellite images of February 2002. In the study area all the glaciers retreated since the beginning of the 20th century. The best studied glaciers are Martial (0.1 km2) and Vinciguerra. Four glaciers of Cordón Martial (1,319 m a.s.l.) have lost 75% of their total area since the Little Ice Age. The mass balance of Glacial Martial Este shows a negative trend since 1998. Finally mass balance observations have been made since 1999–2000 in Bahía del Diablo, Antarctic Peninsula. Results indicate a highly negative cumulative balance. Most glacier inventories are incomplete and out of date; therefore it is very important to complete a new glacier inventory of the Andes of Argentina based mainly on satellite images. The review and the results provide important new information on the glacier distribution, behaviour and glacial history of the regions, but additional glaciological studies are needed as well as well-dated records of glacier fluctuations. The inventory provides information about the distribution and characteristic of the glaciers, allowing to assess the changes that have occurred since the maximum extends of the LIA. The inventories are also useful to study hydrological issues and natural hazards. This report shows significant recent contributions to the study of glaciers. Nevertheless, additional studies and well-dated records of glacier fluctuations are needed. In an attempt to compile an update glacier inventory in the Mendoza Province (32–36ºS) the IANIGLA-CONICET will start briefly with a new Inventory of glaciers based on Aster and Landsat satellite images, supported by the Government of Mendoza Province. The compiled data will be sent to the WGMS and GLIMS. Also researchers of the National University of San Juan are working on an update of the inventory of glaciers (28–32ºS), funded by the Government of San Juan Province. Most glacier inventories are incomplete and out of date; therefore it is very important to complete a new glacier inventory of the Andes of Argentina based mainly on satellite images. The review and the results provide important new information on the glacier distribution, behaviour and glacial history of the regions, but additional glaciological studies are needed as well as well-dated records of glacier fluctuations. The inventory provides information about the distribution and characteristic of the glaciers, allowing to assess the changes that have occurred since the maximum extends of the LIA. The inventories are also useful to study hydrological issues and natural hazards. This report shows significant recent contributions to the study of glaciers. Nevertheless, additional studies and well-dated records of glacier fluctuations are needed. In an attempt to compile an update glacier inventory in the Mendoza Province (32–36ºS) the IANIGLA-CONICET will start briefly with a new Inventory of glaciers based on Aster and Landsat satellite images, supported by the Government of Mendoza Province. The compiled data will be sent to the WGMS and GLIMS. Also researchers of the National University of San Juan are working on an update of the inventory of glaciers (28–32ºS), funded by the Government of San Juan Province. th and early 20th centuries. Besides, a new inventory of glaciers between 49º–49º30’S was recently compiled. In the Andes of Tierra del Fuego a preliminary inventory of glaciers, was based on satellite images of February 2002. In the study area all the glaciers retreated since the beginning of the 20th century. The best studied glaciers are Martial (0.1 km2) and Vinciguerra. Four glaciers of Cordón Martial (1,319 m a.s.l.) have lost 75% of their total area since the Little Ice Age. The mass balance of Glacial Martial Este shows a negative trend since 1998. Finally mass balance observations have been made since 1999–2000 in Bahía del Diablo, Antarctic Peninsula. Results indicate a highly negative cumulative balance. Most glacier inventories are incomplete and out of date; therefore it is very important to complete a new glacier inventory of the Andes of Argentina based mainly on satellite images. The review and the results provide important new information on the glacier distribution, behaviour and glacial history of the regions, but additional glaciological studies are needed as well as well-dated records of glacier fluctuations. The inventory provides information about the distribution and characteristic of the glaciers, allowing to assess the changes that have occurred since the maximum extends of the LIA. The inventories are also useful to study hydrological issues and natural hazards. This report shows significant recent contributions to the study of glaciers. Nevertheless, additional studies and well-dated records of glacier fluctuations are needed. In an attempt to compile an update glacier inventory in the Mendoza Province (32–36ºS) the IANIGLA-CONICET will start briefly with a new Inventory of glaciers based on Aster and Landsat satellite images, supported by the Government of Mendoza Province. The compiled data will be sent to the WGMS and GLIMS. Also researchers of the National University of San Juan are working on an update of the inventory of glaciers (28–32ºS), funded by the Government of San Juan Province. advances occurred at most glaciers in the early 1700s. All glaciers show advances mostly concentrated between the mid-19th and early 20th centuries. Besides, a new inventory of glaciers between 49º–49º30’S was recently compiled. In the Andes of Tierra del Fuego a preliminary inventory of glaciers, was based on satellite images of February 2002. In the study area all the glaciers retreated since the beginning of the 20th century. The best studied glaciers are Martial (0.1 km2) and Vinciguerra. Four glaciers of Cordón Martial (1,319 m a.s.l.) have lost 75% of their total area since the Little Ice Age. The mass balance of Glacial Martial Este shows a negative trend since 1998. Finally mass balance observations have been made since 1999–2000 in Bahía del Diablo, Antarctic Peninsula. Results indicate a highly negative cumulative balance. Most glacier inventories are incomplete and out of date; therefore it is very important to complete a new glacier inventory of the Andes of Argentina based mainly on satellite images. The review and the results provide important new information on the glacier distribution, behaviour and glacial history of the regions, but additional glaciological studies are needed as well as well-dated records of glacier fluctuations. The inventory provides information about the distribution and characteristic of the glaciers, allowing to assess the changes that have occurred since the maximum extends of the LIA. The inventories are also useful to study hydrological issues and natural hazards. This report shows significant recent contributions to the study of glaciers. Nevertheless, additional studies and well-dated records of glacier fluctuations are needed. In an attempt to compile an update glacier inventory in the Mendoza Province (32–36ºS) the IANIGLA-CONICET will start briefly with a new Inventory of glaciers based on Aster and Landsat satellite images, supported by the Government of Mendoza Province. The compiled data will be sent to the WGMS and GLIMS. Also researchers of the National University of San Juan are working on an update of the inventory of glaciers (28–32ºS), funded by the Government of San Juan Province. Most glacier inventories are incomplete and out of date; therefore it is very important to complete a new glacier inventory of the Andes of Argentina based mainly on satellite images. The review and the results provide important new information on the glacier distribution, behaviour and glacial history of the regions, but additional glaciological studies are needed as well as well-dated records of glacier fluctuations. The inventory provides information about the distribution and characteristic of the glaciers, allowing to assess the changes that have occurred since the maximum extends of the LIA. The inventories are also useful to study hydrological issues and natural hazards. This report shows significant recent contributions to the study of glaciers. Nevertheless, additional studies and well-dated records of glacier fluctuations are needed. In an attempt to compile an update glacier inventory in the Mendoza Province (32–36ºS) the IANIGLA-CONICET will start briefly with a new Inventory of glaciers based on Aster and Landsat satellite images, supported by the Government of Mendoza Province. The compiled data will be sent to the WGMS and GLIMS. Also researchers of the National University of San Juan are working on an update of the inventory of glaciers (28–32ºS), funded by the Government of San Juan Province. th and early 20th centuries. Besides, a new inventory of glaciers between 49º–49º30’S was recently compiled. In the Andes of Tierra del Fuego a preliminary inventory of glaciers, was based on satellite images of February 2002. In the study area all the glaciers retreated since the beginning of the 20th century. The best studied glaciers are Martial (0.1 km2) and Vinciguerra. Four glaciers of Cordón Martial (1,319 m a.s.l.) have lost 75% of their total area since the Little Ice Age. The mass balance of Glacial Martial Este shows a negative trend since 1998. Finally mass balance observations have been made since 1999–2000 in Bahía del Diablo, Antarctic Peninsula. Results indicate a highly negative cumulative balance. Most glacier inventories are incomplete and out of date; therefore it is very important to complete a new glacier inventory of the Andes of Argentina based mainly on satellite images. The review and the results provide important new information on the glacier distribution, behaviour and glacial history of the regions, but additional glaciological studies are needed as well as well-dated records of glacier fluctuations. The inventory provides information about the distribution and characteristic of the glaciers, allowing to assess the changes that have occurred since the maximum extends of the LIA. The inventories are also useful to study hydrological issues and natural hazards. This report shows significant recent contributions to the study of glaciers. Nevertheless, additional studies and well-dated records of glacier fluctuations are needed. In an attempt to compile an update glacier inventory in the Mendoza Province (32–36ºS) the IANIGLA-CONICET will start briefly with a new Inventory of glaciers based on Aster and Landsat satellite images, supported by the Government of Mendoza Province. The compiled data will be sent to the WGMS and GLIMS. Also researchers of the National University of San Juan are working on an update of the inventory of glaciers (28–32ºS), funded by the Government of San Juan Province. th century. At 29º20’S, an inventory covering 100 km² showed that the glacierized area lost about 12% in 1959–2005 and the overall mass balance in 2007/2009 was negative. Also, new glacier inventories at 28º–30ºS were recently published. Studies about glacier fluctuations since the end of the 19th century or the beginning of the 20th century to 2007 are more abundant in the Central Andes (33º–35ºS). The Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum advance occurred between cal. yr 1550 and 1720 AD, and a readvance occurred around cal. yr 1830 AD. The frontal variations of selected glaciers of different sizes showed a negative trend from the end of the 19th century or the beginning of the 20th century to 2007. Some of these glaciers experienced minor advances in the 1980s and 1990s, which could be related with strong warm ENSO events during these decades. It is interesting to note that the glaciers in the Aconcagua area (33ºS) and in the Río del Plomo basin (32º57’S) lost about 30% of the glacierized area in the last hundred years. In the Glaciar Piloto Este (32º27’S) the mass balance series shows a very negative trend in the 1979–2003 period. Detailed knowledge about the distribution and characteristics of surging glaciers is fundamental for assessing risks from glacier hazards. Glaciar Horcones Inferior (32º40’S), and the Glaciar Grande del Nevado (32º57’S) are well documented cases of a surging glaciers. The Glaciar Laguna (34º30’S) advanced in 1970–1982 while the glaciers in the Atuel basin retreated, suggesting a surging event. In Northern Patagonia, Monte Tronador (41º10’S) is covered by an icecap that feeds several glaciers flowing into Chile and Argentina. Glaciar Frías has been dated by dendro-geomorphological studies and at least nine events were identified during the past millennium. The maximum LIA extension was tree-ring dated to 1638. After this period, glacier shrinkage has prevailed throughout the 20th century. In Southern Patagonia, the number and extent of glaciers increases significantly. The SPI is ~370 km long from north to south. In 1944/45 the SPI covered 13,500 km2 and diminished to 12,500 km2 in 2009, due to the negative mass balance of the last decades. The most studied glacier is the Glaciar Perito Moreno, but also the nearby Ameghino and Mayo glaciers. The Perito Moreno is a calving glacier that advanced from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, and then remained stable. Also, five small glaciers have been studied near the northeast margin of the SPI (ca. 49ºS) and the LIA maximum position was dated to the late 1500s–early 1600s. Relatively synchronous advances occurred at most glaciers in the early 1700s. All glaciers show advances mostly concentrated between the mid-19th and early 20th centuries. Besides, a new inventory of glaciers between 49º–49º30’S was recently compiled. In the Andes of Tierra del Fuego a preliminary inventory of glaciers, was based on satellite images of February 2002. In the study area all the glaciers retreated since the beginning of the 20th century. The best studied glaciers are Martial (0.1 km2) and Vinciguerra. Four glaciers of Cordón Martial (1,319 m a.s.l.) have lost 75% of their total area since the Little Ice Age. The mass balance of Glacial Martial Este shows a negative trend since 1998. Finally mass balance observations have been made since 1999–2000 in Bahía del Diablo, Antarctic Peninsula. Results indicate a highly negative cumulative balance. Most glacier inventories are incomplete and out of date; therefore it is very important to complete a new glacier inventory of the Andes of Argentina based mainly on satellite images. The review and the results provide important new information on the glacier distribution, behaviour and glacial history of the regions, but additional glaciological studies are needed as well as well-dated records of glacier fluctuations. The inventory provides information about the distribution and characteristic of the glaciers, allowing to assess the changes that have occurred since the maximum extends of the LIA. The inventories are also useful to study hydrological issues and natural hazards. This report shows significant recent contributions to the study of glaciers. Nevertheless, additional studies and well-dated records of glacier fluctuations are needed. In an attempt to compile an update glacier inventory in the Mendoza Province (32–36ºS) the IANIGLA-CONICET will start briefly with a new Inventory of glaciers based on Aster and Landsat satellite images, supported by the Government of Mendoza Province. The compiled data will be sent to the WGMS and GLIMS. Also researchers of the National University of San Juan are working on an update of the inventory of glaciers (28–32ºS), funded by the Government of San Juan Province. Most glacier inventories are incomplete and out of date; therefore it is very important to complete a new glacier inventory of the Andes of Argentina based mainly on satellite images. The review and the results provide important new information on the glacier distribution, behaviour and glacial history of the regions, but additional glaciological studies are needed as well as well-dated records of glacier fluctuations. The inventory provides information about the distribution and characteristic of the glaciers, allowing to assess the changes that have occurred since the maximum extends of the LIA. The inventories are also useful to study hydrological issues and natural hazards. This report shows significant recent contributions to the study of glaciers. Nevertheless, additional studies and well-dated records of glacier fluctuations are needed. In an attempt to compile an update glacier inventory in the Mendoza Province (32–36ºS) the IANIGLA-CONICET will start briefly with a new Inventory of glaciers based on Aster and Landsat satellite images, supported by the Government of Mendoza Province. The compiled data will be sent to the WGMS and GLIMS. Also researchers of the National University of San Juan are working on an update of the inventory of glaciers (28–32ºS), funded by the Government of San Juan Province. th and early 20th centuries. Besides, a new inventory of glaciers between 49º–49º30’S was recently compiled. In the Andes of Tierra del Fuego a preliminary inventory of glaciers, was based on satellite images of February 2002. In the study area all the glaciers retreated since the beginning of the 20th century. The best studied glaciers are Martial (0.1 km2) and Vinciguerra. Four glaciers of Cordón Martial (1,319 m a.s.l.) have lost 75% of their total area since the Little Ice Age. The mass balance of Glacial Martial Este shows a negative trend since 1998. Finally mass balance observations have been made since 1999–2000 in Bahía del Diablo, Antarctic Peninsula. Results indicate a highly negative cumulative balance. Most glacier inventories are incomplete and out of date; therefore it is very important to complete a new glacier inventory of the Andes of Argentina based mainly on satellite images. The review and the results provide important new information on the glacier distribution, behaviour and glacial history of the regions, but additional glaciological studies are needed as well as well-dated records of glacier fluctuations. The inventory provides information about the distribution and characteristic of the glaciers, allowing to assess the changes that have occurred since the maximum extends of the LIA. The inventories are also useful to study hydrological issues and natural hazards. This report shows significant recent contributions to the study of glaciers. Nevertheless, additional studies and well-dated records of glacier fluctuations are needed. In an attempt to compile an update glacier inventory in the Mendoza Province (32–36ºS) the IANIGLA-CONICET will start briefly with a new Inventory of glaciers based on Aster and Landsat satellite images, supported by the Government of Mendoza Province. The compiled data will be sent to the WGMS and GLIMS. Also researchers of the National University of San Juan are working on an update of the inventory of glaciers (28–32ºS), funded by the Government of San Juan Province.
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