CONTRATADOS
PICCOLO Maria Cintia
capítulos de libros
Título:
Methods to Estimate Heat Balance in Coastal Wetlands
Autor/es:
PICCOLO M. C.
Libro:
Coastal wetlands: an integrated ecosystem approach.
Editorial:
Elsevier
Referencias:
Año: 2019; p. 263 - 287
Resumen:
The heat balance depends on site conditions, geographical location, and climate. While the latitude determines the amount of incoming radiation entering into the ecosystem, the resultant net radiation depends on the site conditions such as its microclimate and vegetation. Similar methods and formulations are used to calculate the coastal wetland heat balance in different latitudes and locations. To calculate the different terms of the heat balance of wetlands the bulk aerodynamic formulation is one of the most common approaches. The formulas are applied in numerical models or empirical approximations. The primary agents that affect wetlands are the tides, the vegetation (or lack of it) and the wind. The magnitudes of the different terms of the heat balance depend on the particular microclimate of each ecosystem and the site conditions. In middle and low latitudes, evaporation/evapotranspiration is the most critical variable that defines the heat balance. At high latitudes, although many measurements have been made, satellite images are currently being used to estimate the energy balance, due to the difficulty of measuring. The accuracy of the calculation of the heat balance has improved due to new and increasingly sophisticated methods. However, because of the variability and complexity of coastal wetlands, there is not a single approach that is best to estimate the heat balance.