NUÑEZ martin Andres
Invasive belowground mutualists of woody plants
NUÑEZ M. A. & DICKIE I. A.
Lugar: Berlin; Año: 2014 p. 645 - 661
Most plants require mutualistic associa- tions to survive, which can be an important limitation on their ability to become invasive. There are four strategies that permit plants to become invasive without being limited by a lack of mutualists. One is to not be dependent on mutualists. The other three strategies are to form novel mutualisms, form associ- ations with cosmopolitan species, or co-invade with mutualists from their native range. Historically there has been a bias to study mutualisms from a plant perspective, with little consideration of soil biota as invasive species in their own right. Here we address this by reviewing the literature on belowground invasive mutualists of woody plants. We focus on woody invaders as ecosystem-transforming plants that frequently have a high dependence on belowground mutualists. We found that co-invasions are common, with many ectomycorrhizal plant species and N-fixing species co-invading with their mutualists. Other groups, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal plants, tend to associate with cosmopolitan fungal species or to form novel associations in their exotic range. Only limited evidence exists of direct negative effects of co- invading mutualists on native mutualist communities, and effects on native plants appear to be largely driven by altered environmental conditions rather than direct interactions. Mutualists that introduce novel ecosys- tem functions have effects greater than would be predicted based solely on their biomass. Focusing on the belowground aspects of plant invasions provides novel insights into the impacts, processes and man- agement of invasions of both soil organisms and woody plant species.