MALCHIODI Emilio Luis
Uptake and Intracellular Trafficking of Superantigens in Dendritic Cells
MARÍA B. GANEM; MAURICIO C. DE MARZI; MARÍA J. FERNÁNDEZ-LYNCH; CAROLINA JANCIC; MÓNICA VERMEULEN; JORGE GEFFNER; ROY A. MARIUZZA; MARISA M. FERNÁNDEZ; EMILIO L. MALCHIODI
PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE
Lugar: San Francisco; Año: 2013 vol. 8 p. 1 - 12
Bacterial superantigens (SAgs) are exotoxins produced mainly by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes that can cause toxic shock syndrome (TSS). According to current paradigm, SAgs interact directly and simultaneously with T cell receptor (TCR) on the T cell and MHC class II (MHC-II) on the antigen-presenting cell (APC), thereby circumventing intracellular processing to trigger T cell activation. Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional APCs that coat nearly all body surfaces and are the most probable candidate to interact with SAgs. We demonstrate that SAgs are taken up by mouse DCs without triggering DC maturation. SAgs were found in intracellular acidic compartment of DCs as biologically active molecules. Moreover, SAgs co-localized with EEA1, RAB-7 and LAMP-2, at different times, and were then recycled to the cell membrane. DCs loaded with SAgs are capable of triggering in vitro lymphocyte proliferation and, injected into mice, stimulate T cells bearing the proper TCR in draining lymph nodes. Transportation and trafficking of SAgs in DCs might increase the local concentration of these exotoxins where they will produce the highest effect by promoting their encounter with both MHC-II and TCR in lymph nodes, and may explain how just a few SAg molecules can induce the severe pathology associated with TSS.