MALCHIODI Emilio Luis
Vaccination approaches against Trypanosoma cruzi infection
CAZORLA SI, FRANK FM, MALCHIODI EL.
EXPERT REVIEW OF VACCINES
Año: 2009 vol. 8 p. 921 - 935
In natural infection, the survival of Trypanosoma cruzi despite the complex immune response elicited, including several humoral and cellular components of the innate and acquired immunity, suggests that the immune systems natural responses are inherently inadequate. Consequently, it is of paramount importance to find alternatives to direct the immune system before infection, and redirect it after infection, to obtain a prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine. We herein review the recent advances in vaccine research and the development of the major antigen candidates, including cruzipain, trans-sialidase, amastigote surface protein, paraflagellar rod protein, and others. In the last five years, experimental works have been conducted to analyze DNA delivery systems, including viruses and bacteria, as well as immunomodulators such as CpG-ODN, the macrophage-activating lipopeptide from Mycoplasma fermentans, the glycolipid á-galactosylceramide, the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, IL12 and other cytokines and chemokines. The review also covers articles that shed light on some mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity against T. cruzi, which improved our knowledge and provided potentially useful tools to fight infection. A better understanding of the protective immune responses that can effectively arrest T. cruzi survival in the mammalian host is critical for the development of vaccines against Chagas disease.