ECHENIQUE Carmen Viviana
capítulos de libros
Biotechnology in wheat breeding
Advances in Plant Physiology. A. Hemantaranjan (Editor)
Scientific Publishers
Lugar: Jodhpur; Año: 2004; p. 520 - 538
Man has made plant breeding since early days. In general, breeding in self-pollinating crops can be considered as the consequence of three different actions: (1) recombination of genes to enlarge genetic variability, (2) identification and selection of recombinant genotypes according to agronomic criteria, (3) fixation of superior alleles in homozygous genotypes. Usually, the selection of recombinant genotypes is based on phenotypic analysis, which is directly related with the genetics of the trait under study. Diverse gene and environmental interactions are limiting features in the phenotypic analysis of a trait. In the last 15-20 years, significant progress has been achieved on the genetics, expression and engineering of agronomic traits in plants. In particular, plant biotechnology includes novel strategies or tools to engineer agronomic traits in a cultivar, in order to satisfy farmers, industry and customers demands. Among these tools we can consider (1) molecular markers, (2) in vitro tissue culture and (3) plant transformation. Furthermore, the recent success of genomics, concerning to novel technologies for high scale gene discovery and their simultaneous expression in different tissues and environments, has turn out to be a valuable tool to identify, characterize and utilize novel traits highly significant in plant breeding. In wheat is expected that these biotechnologies will impact mainly on (1) rational selection of desirable genotypes assisted by molecular markers, (2) accelerated development of homozygous genotypes through doubled-haploids technology (3) increase of the genetic variability in wheat germplasm by adding natural and modified genes through transformation.