CUCHER Marcela Alejandra
Extracellular non-coding RNA signatures of the metacestode stage of Echinococcus multilocularis
ANCAROLA ME; LICHTENSTEIN, GABRIEL; HERBIG, J; HOLROYD, N; MARICONTI, M; BRUNETTI, E; BERRIMAN, M; ALBRECHT, K; MARCILLA, A; ROSENZVIT, M; KAMENETZKY L; BREHM, K; CUCHER, M
PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES
PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE
Lugar: San Francisco; Año: 2020
BackgroundExtracellular RNAs (ex-RNAs) are secreted by cells through different means that may involve association with proteins, lipoproteins or extracellular vesicles (EV). In the context of parasitism, ex-RNAs represent new and exciting communication intermediaries with promising potential as novel biomarkers. In the last years, it was shown that helminth parasites secrete ex-RNAs, however, most work mainly focused on RNA secretion mediated by EV. Ex-RNA study is of special interest in those helminth infections that still lack biomarkers for early and/or follow-up diagnosis, such as echinococcosis, a neglected zoonotic disease caused by cestodes of the genus Echinococcus. In this work, we have characterised the ex-RNA profile secreted by in vitro grown metacestodes of Echinococcus multilocularis, the casuative agent of alveolar echinococcosis.Methodology/Principal findingsWe have used high throughput RNA-sequencing together with RT-qPCR to characterise the ex-RNA profile secreted towards the extra- and intra-parasite milieus in EV-enriched and EV-depleted fractions. We show that a polarized secretion of small RNAs takes place, with microRNAs mainly secreted to the extra-parasite milieu and rRNA- and tRNA-derived sequences mostly secreted to the intra-parasite milieu. In addition, we show by nanoparticle tracking analyses that viable metacestodes secrete EV mainly into the metacestode inner vesicular fluid (MVF); however, the number of nanoparticles in culture medium and MVF increases > 10-fold when metacestodes show signs of tegument impairment. Interestingly, we confirm the presence of host miRNAs in the intra-parasite milieu, implying their internalization and transport through the tegument towards the MVF. Finally, our assessment of the detection of Echinococcus miRNAs in patient samples by RT-qPCR yielded negative results suggesting the tested miRNAs may not be good biomarkers for this disease.Conclusions/SignificanceA comprehensive study of the secretion mechanisms throughout the life cycle of these parasites will help to understand parasite interaction with the host and also, improve current diagnostic tools.