capítulos de libros
Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Coastal Patagonia
MARINA L. NIEVAS EL MAKTE; ROSANA POLIFRONI; MARCELA SEPULVEDA; ANA FAZIO
Anthropogenic Pollution of Aquatic Ecosystems
Año: 2021; p. 1 - 28
The Patagonian Atlantic region is known as a pristine area with more than 3000 km of coastline. It includes two productive oil basins, Golfo San Jorge and Austral from where oil production (about 14 million m 3 / year) is transported by sea from five terminals. The maritime and coastal areas of the Argentine continental shelf are relevant for marine conservation, tourism and fishing, being spawning and nursery areas of many species. In this chapter, we describe the main aspects of oil production in the coastal basins and its maritime transport throughout the Atlantic Patagonia. Offshore oil exploitation and future development prospects on the Argentine continental shelf are introduced. We also present the main oil spills that occurred in Atlantic Patagonia and a review of hydrocarbon levels in coastal marine sediments and organisms. Some episodes of chronic contamination are depicted. Levels range from pristine uncontaminated areas to heavily polluted ones, affected by oil or fuel spills. Hydrocarbon pollution has a punctual distribution pattern near the sources, with the most polluted sites located in ports and oil exploitation areas. In addition, possible interactions of sensitive areas for marine conservation, fishing activities and maritime transport are discussed.