INVESTIGADORES
SALOMON Oscar Daniel
capítulos de libros
Título:
Leishmaniasis and environment in Argentina: an eco-epidemiological approach.
Autor/es:
SALOMON OD; MASTRANGELO AV; QUINTANA MG; ROSA JR
Libro:
Encyclopedia of Environmental Health Vol 3
Editorial:
Elsevier
Referencias:
Lugar: Burlington; Año: 2011; p. 481 - 490
Resumen:
The leishmaniases are a group of diseases affecting mammals, including humans, caused by different Trypanosomatidae parasites of the genus Leishmania. The infection can range from asymptomatic and self-limiting skin ulcers to mutilating lesions, systemic involvement, and death. Consequently, the social impact of leishmaniases ranges from aesthetic problems, to physically disabling conditions in an environment of inadequate familial support, to an epidemic causing significant loss of life.Leishmania. The infection can range from asymptomatic and self-limiting skin ulcers to mutilating lesions, systemic involvement, and death. Consequently, the social impact of leishmaniases ranges from aesthetic problems, to physically disabling conditions in an environment of inadequate familial support, to an epidemic causing significant loss of life. Leishmania are intracellular parasites of the mammalian immune system. The species of Leishmania that are currently circulating in the Americas do not generate immunoprotection. The pathologic expression in the skin, mucosa, or internal organs depends mainly on the parasite species and strain, but it can also be associated with the vector, host, reservoir, environment, and epidemiological scenario. In the Americas, each Leishmania species is transmitted by a single or multiple species of tiny Phlebotominae insects of the genus Lutzomyia that inhabit tropical forests. Owing to deforestation, environmental modification, and global warming patterns, scientists have predicted both extinction and the opposite extreme of leishmaniases’ pandemic. Leishmaniasis was cited as one of the main factors in the extinction of dinosaurs by Zinsser in a document from the early twentieth century, and this idea resurfaced almost a century later in the work of Poinar and other scholars. However, despite the intensive and extensive deforestation of tropical and subtropical forests over the past several decades, leishmaniases remain endemic in 88 countries of the intertropical belt, and the reported incidence of leishmaniasis in humans has increased steadily worldwide since the 1980s. This increase has been attributed to concurrent anthropological, biological, and climatological factors; these are related primarily to landscape modification connected to land and water use or unplanned urbanization, and to the immune status of vulnerable populations. The incidence is estimated at 2 000 000 cases per year, and the prevalence is estimated to be 12 000 000 cases. According to World Health Organization, leishmaniases are responsible for 2 356 609 disability-adjusted life years, including 1 848 930 years of life lost and 507 609 years lost due to disability. Clearly, the predictions that leishmaniasis would go extinct as a result of deforestation were inaccurate. In addition, the disease has not jeopardized humanity beyond the extent to which humanity has jeopardized itself. Three issues help to illustrate the concepts and misperceptions around the relationship between the environment and leishmaniasis transmission patterns: (1) the time and space scales of the data and those used for the analysis, and the conclusions; (2) the cultural dimension of leishmaniasis transmission; and (3) the resilience of the scientific paradigm compared to the dynamism of nature. The former two topics will be discussed for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Argentina, which serves as a case study of interactions between a vectorborne disease and the environment. The third point will be addressed within the discussion of the prior two.are intracellular parasites of the mammalian immune system. The species of Leishmania that are currently circulating in the Americas do not generate immunoprotection. The pathologic expression in the skin, mucosa, or internal organs depends mainly on the parasite species and strain, but it can also be associated with the vector, host, reservoir, environment, and epidemiological scenario. In the Americas, each Leishmania species is transmitted by a single or multiple species of tiny Phlebotominae insects of the genus Lutzomyia that inhabit tropical forests. Owing to deforestation, environmental modification, and global warming patterns, scientists have predicted both extinction and the opposite extreme of leishmaniases’ pandemic. Leishmaniasis was cited as one of the main factors in the extinction of dinosaurs by Zinsser in a document from the early twentieth century, and this idea resurfaced almost a century later in the work of Poinar and other scholars. However, despite the intensive and extensive deforestation of tropical and subtropical forests over the past several decades, leishmaniases remain endemic in 88 countries of the intertropical belt, and the reported incidence of leishmaniasis in humans has increased steadily worldwide since the 1980s. This increase has been attributed to concurrent anthropological, biological, and climatological factors; these are related primarily to landscape modification connected to land and water use or unplanned urbanization, and to the immune status of vulnerable populations. The incidence is estimated at 2 000 000 cases per year, and the prevalence is estimated to be 12 000 000 cases. According to World Health Organization, leishmaniases are responsible for 2 356 609 disability-adjusted life years, including 1 848 930 years of life lost and 507 609 years lost due to disability. Clearly, the predictions that leishmaniasis would go extinct as a result of deforestation were inaccurate. In addition, the disease has not jeopardized humanity beyond the extent to which humanity has jeopardized itself. Three issues help to illustrate the concepts and misperceptions around the relationship between the environment and leishmaniasis transmission patterns: (1) the time and space scales of the data and those used for the analysis, and the conclusions; (2) the cultural dimension of leishmaniasis transmission; and (3) the resilience of the scientific paradigm compared to the dynamism of nature. The former two topics will be discussed for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Argentina, which serves as a case study of interactions between a vectorborne disease and the environment. The third point will be addressed within the discussion of the prior two.Leishmania that are currently circulating in the Americas do not generate immunoprotection. The pathologic expression in the skin, mucosa, or internal organs depends mainly on the parasite species and strain, but it can also be associated with the vector, host, reservoir, environment, and epidemiological scenario. In the Americas, each Leishmania species is transmitted by a single or multiple species of tiny Phlebotominae insects of the genus Lutzomyia that inhabit tropical forests. Owing to deforestation, environmental modification, and global warming patterns, scientists have predicted both extinction and the opposite extreme of leishmaniases’ pandemic. Leishmaniasis was cited as one of the main factors in the extinction of dinosaurs by Zinsser in a document from the early twentieth century, and this idea resurfaced almost a century later in the work of Poinar and other scholars. However, despite the intensive and extensive deforestation of tropical and subtropical forests over the past several decades, leishmaniases remain endemic in 88 countries of the intertropical belt, and the reported incidence of leishmaniasis in humans has increased steadily worldwide since the 1980s. This increase has been attributed to concurrent anthropological, biological, and climatological factors; these are related primarily to landscape modification connected to land and water use or unplanned urbanization, and to the immune status of vulnerable populations. The incidence is estimated at 2 000 000 cases per year, and the prevalence is estimated to be 12 000 000 cases. According to World Health Organization, leishmaniases are responsible for 2 356 609 disability-adjusted life years, including 1 848 930 years of life lost and 507 609 years lost due to disability. Clearly, the predictions that leishmaniasis would go extinct as a result of deforestation were inaccurate. In addition, the disease has not jeopardized humanity beyond the extent to which humanity has jeopardized itself. Three issues help to illustrate the concepts and misperceptions around the relationship between the environment and leishmaniasis transmission patterns: (1) the time and space scales of the data and those used for the analysis, and the conclusions; (2) the cultural dimension of leishmaniasis transmission; and (3) the resilience of the scientific paradigm compared to the dynamism of nature. The former two topics will be discussed for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Argentina, which serves as a case study of interactions between a vectorborne disease and the environment. The third point will be addressed within the discussion of the prior two.Leishmania species is transmitted by a single or multiple species of tiny Phlebotominae insects of the genus Lutzomyia that inhabit tropical forests. Owing to deforestation, environmental modification, and global warming patterns, scientists have predicted both extinction and the opposite extreme of leishmaniases’ pandemic. Leishmaniasis was cited as one of the main factors in the extinction of dinosaurs by Zinsser in a document from the early twentieth century, and this idea resurfaced almost a century later in the work of Poinar and other scholars. However, despite the intensive and extensive deforestation of tropical and subtropical forests over the past several decades, leishmaniases remain endemic in 88 countries of the intertropical belt, and the reported incidence of leishmaniasis in humans has increased steadily worldwide since the 1980s. This increase has been attributed to concurrent anthropological, biological, and climatological factors; these are related primarily to landscape modification connected to land and water use or unplanned urbanization, and to the immune status of vulnerable populations. The incidence is estimated at 2 000 000 cases per year, and the prevalence is estimated to be 12 000 000 cases. According to World Health Organization, leishmaniases are responsible for 2 356 609 disability-adjusted life years, including 1 848 930 years of life lost and 507 609 years lost due to disability. Clearly, the predictions that leishmaniasis would go extinct as a result of deforestation were inaccurate. In addition, the disease has not jeopardized humanity beyond the extent to which humanity has jeopardized itself. Three issues help to illustrate the concepts and misperceptions around the relationship between the environment and leishmaniasis transmission patterns: (1) the time and space scales of the data and those used for the analysis, and the conclusions; (2) the cultural dimension of leishmaniasis transmission; and (3) the resilience of the scientific paradigm compared to the dynamism of nature. The former two topics will be discussed for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Argentina, which serves as a case study of interactions between a vectorborne disease and the environment. The third point will be addressed within the discussion of the prior two.Lutzomyia that inhabit tropical forests. Owing to deforestation, environmental modification, and global warming patterns, scientists have predicted both extinction and the opposite extreme of leishmaniases’ pandemic. Leishmaniasis was cited as one of the main factors in the extinction of dinosaurs by Zinsser in a document from the early twentieth century, and this idea resurfaced almost a century later in the work of Poinar and other scholars. However, despite the intensive and extensive deforestation of tropical and subtropical forests over the past several decades, leishmaniases remain endemic in 88 countries of the intertropical belt, and the reported incidence of leishmaniasis in humans has increased steadily worldwide since the 1980s. This increase has been attributed to concurrent anthropological, biological, and climatological factors; these are related primarily to landscape modification connected to land and water use or unplanned urbanization, and to the immune status of vulnerable populations. The incidence is estimated at 2 000 000 cases per year, and the prevalence is estimated to be 12 000 000 cases. According to World Health Organization, leishmaniases are responsible for 2 356 609 disability-adjusted life years, including 1 848 930 years of life lost and 507 609 years lost due to disability. Clearly, the predictions that leishmaniasis would go extinct as a result of deforestation were inaccurate. In addition, the disease has not jeopardized humanity beyond the extent to which humanity has jeopardized itself. Three issues help to illustrate the concepts and misperceptions around the relationship between the environment and leishmaniasis transmission patterns: (1) the time and space scales of the data and those used for the analysis, and the conclusions; (2) the cultural dimension of leishmaniasis transmission; and (3) the resilience of the scientific paradigm compared to the dynamism of nature. The former two topics will be discussed for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Argentina, which serves as a case study of interactions between a vectorborne disease and the environment. The third point will be addressed within the discussion of the prior two.
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