SALOMON Oscar Daniel
capítulos de libros
Leishmaniasis-Vector Surveillance and Control in Brazil: A Challenge to Control Programs
Brazilian Sand Flies Biology, Taxonomy, Medical Importance
Lugar: Rio de Janeiro; Año: 2018; p. 467 - 494
Este libro tiene derechos de CopyrightIn Brazil, leishmaniasis are zoonotic and vector-borne diseases, and they are a challenge to control programs due to the clinical complexity and diversity of Leishmania species, the vectors, and the domestic and wild reservoirs involved in different transmission cycles (Desjeux 2004; World Health Organization [WHO] 2010). The presence of this disease is associated with poverty, and the social, economic, environmental, and climatic determinants have a direct influence on leishmaniasis epidemiology (Alvar 2006; Franke 2002; Maia-Elkhoury 2016). In 2012, the WHO developed guidelines for a group of 10 neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), including leishmaniasis, and in the same year the London Declaration reinforced the commitment to support this initiative by focusing on the control and elimination of NTDs. In 2016, this agreement was ratified by the Member States through the CD55.R09 Resolution. Despite technical and scientific advances, the proposed measures for leishmaniasis control are concentrated on the detection and treatment of human cases along with the use of new alternatives, which?at times?must be combined with other control and surveillance preventive measures based on the characteristics and clinical−epidemiological profile of the disease in the Americas (WHO 2012; London Declaration 2012; PAHO 2016; Gramiccia and Gradoni 2005; de Vlas 2016). Nevertheless, the challenge of controlling these diseases persists because no tools are available to decrease and effectively manage transmission by vectors. Notification and analysis of consolidated data and epidemiological indicators, spatially disaggregated at the lowest geographical level, have shown their importance in the identification of leishmaniasis-priority areas and in the guidance of surveillance and control actions by contributing to a better technical, operative and financial management (Brazil 2006, 2007; Belo 2013; PAHO 2016). The authors agree with the taxonomic proposal by Galati (2003) for American phlebotominae and its use in scientific literature. However, because this chapter is mainly for technical agents of the programs of control, in addition to the interested researchers and students, we retained the binomial names given by Young and Duncan (1994). The broader use of the genus Lutzomyia is still the regular denomination among programmatic field-based activities. Thus, to introduce new genus here could introduce doubts about the actual identity of the species. Once the taxonomy by Galati is more generalized among the technicians, it could be made uniform.