VANNI ricardo Oscar
congresos y reuniones científicas
Las razas de maní Arachis hypogaea L. cultivadas en Bolivia
Congreso; XXXI Jornadas Argentinas de Botánica; 2007
Institución organizadora:
Bolivia is reagarded as the probable place of origin of the domesticated peanut, and an important world center of unique peanut diversity. As the first published study of its kind or peanut, this paper identifies and describes the infraspecific diversity of the crop in its country of origin and center of diverstity. 62 distinct landraces of Bolivian peanut were identified and systematically described. 42 landraces belong to Arachis hypogaea L. ssp. hypogaea var. hypogaea; 17 to A. hypogaea ssp. fastigiata var. fastigiata; one to A. hypogaea ssp. fastigiata var. vulgaris; and two to A. hypogaea ssp. fastigiata var. peruviana. With very few exceptions, the landraces encountered in Bolivia are almost entirely endemic to that country. The most typical peanuts from Bolivia pertain to the landraces ?Crema?, ?Colorado San Simón?, ?Bayo americano?, ?Overo?, and ?Overo carenado?, which are widely cultivated throughout the country. A few regions of unusually high peanut diversity can be identified. In the Yungas region of La Paz, 11 landraces were collected, of which three are endemic. In the mountainous regions of Santa Cruz and Cochabamba, 18 landraces were collected, of which six are endemic. The Department of Tarija yielded 14 landraces , of which two are endemic. All of the aforementioned landraces pertain to the botanical variety hypogaea. In contrast, the subspecies fastigiata has a remarkable center or diversity in the watershed of the Rio Beni, where 10 landraces were collected in a fairly small area, nine of which are endemic to that region. This monograph is intended to enhance the knowledge and appreciation of peanut diversity, and facilitate the conservation and use of peanut landraces by scientistis, plant breeders, and farmers.