INSTITUTO ARGENTINO DE NIVOLOGIA, GLACIOLOGIA Y CIENCIAS AMBIENTALES
Unidad Ejecutora - UE
Observed and Projected Hydroclimate Changes in the Andes
ARIAS, PAOLA A.; BORREL, LLUÍS FITA; MASIOKAS, MARIANO; PABÓN-CAICEDO, JOSÉ DANIEL; ESPINOZA, JHAN CARLO; LAVADO-CASIMIRO, WALDO; VILLALBA, RICARDO; CARRIL, ANDREA F.; GOUBANOVA, KATERINA; SOLMAN, SILVINA
Frontiers in Earth Science
Año: 2020 vol. 8
The Andes is the most biodiverse region across the globe. In addition, some ofthe largest urban areas in South America are located within this region. Therefore,ecosystems and human population are affected by hydroclimate changes reported atglobal, regional and local scales. This paper summarizes progress of knowledge aboutlong-term trends observed during the last two millennia over the entire Andes, with moredetail for the period since the second half of the 20th century, and presents a synthesisof climate change projections by the end of the 21st century. In particular, this paperfocuses on temperature, precipitation and surface runoff in the Andes. Changes in theAndean cryosphere are not included here since this particular topic is discussed in otherpaper in this Frontiers special issue, and elsewhere (e.g. IPCC, 2019b). While previousworks have reviewed the hydroclimate of South America and particular sectors (i.e.,Amazon and La Plata basins, the Altiplano, Northern South America, etc.) this reviewincludes for the first time the entire Andes region, considering all latitudinal ranges:tropical (North of 27S), subtropical (27S37S) and extratropical (South of 37S). Thispaper provides a comprehensive view of past and recent changes, as well as availableclimate change projections, over the entire Andean range. From this review, the mainknowledge gaps are highlighted and urgent research necessities in order to providemore mechanistic understanding of hydroclimate changes in the Andes and moreconfident projections of its possible changes in association with global climate change.