BONETTO Carlos Alberto
Insecticide concentrations in stream sediments of soy production regions of South America.
HUNT, L; C. BONETTO; V. RESH; D. BUSS; S. FANELLI; N. MARROCHI; M. LYDY
SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Lugar: Amsterdam; Año: 2016 vol. 547: p. 114 - 124
Concentrations of 17 insecticides were measured in sediments collected from 53 streams in soy production regions of South America (Argentina in 2011-2014, Paraguay and Brazil in 2013) during peak application periods. Although environmental regulations are quite different in each country, commonly used insecticides were detected at high frequencies in all regions. Maximum concentrations (and detection frequencies) for each sampling event ranged from: 1.2?7.4 ng/g dw chlorpyrifos (56-100%); 0.9?8.3 ng/g dw cypermethrin (20-100%); 0.42?16.6 ng/g dw lambda-cyhalothrin (60-100%); and 0.49?2.1 ng/g dw endosulfan (13-100%). Other pyrethroids were detected less frequently. Banned organochlorines were most frequently detected in Brazil. In all countries, cypermethrin and/or lambda-cyhalothrin toxic units (TUs), based on Hyalella azteca LC50 bioassays, were occasionally >0.5 (indicating likely acute toxicity), while TUs for other insecticides were 1 were collected from streams with riparian buffer width < 20 m. A multiple regression analysis that included five landscape and habitat predictor variables for the Brazilian streams examined indicated that buffer width was the most important predictor variable in explaining total insecticide TU values. While Brazil and Paraguay require forested stream buffers, there were no such regulations in the Argentine pampas where buffer widths were smaller. Multiple insecticides were found in almost all stream sediment samples in intensive soy production regions, with pyrethroids most often occurring at acutely toxic concentrations, and greatest potential for insecticide toxicity in streams with minimum buffer width < 20m.