MORATA vilma ines
Impact of antagonistic yeasts from wine grapes on growth and mycotoxin production by Alternaria alternate
PRENDES, LUCIANA P.; MERÍN, MARÍA G.; ZACHETTI, VANESA G.L.; PEREYRA, ANABELA; RAMIREZ, MARÍA L.; MORATA DE AMBROSINI, VILMA I.
JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY
WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC
Aims: Alternaria alternata is a major contaminant of wine grapes, meaning a health risk for wine consumers due to the accumulation of toxic metabolites. To develop a successful biofungicide, the effectiveness of epiphytic wine grape yeasts against A. alternata growth and toxin production was assessed in vitro under temperature and aW conditions that simulate those present in the field.Methods and results: The effect of 14 antagonistic yeasts was evaluated on growth and alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tenuazonic acid (TA) production by three A. alternata strains in a synthetic medium with composition similar to grape (SN) at three temperatures (15, 25 and 30 °C). All Metschnikowia spp. yeast strains evaluated completely prevented A. alternata growth and mycotoxin production at all temperatures in SN medium. Meanwhile, the growth inhibition exerted by Starmerella bacillaris yeast strains was higher at 30 °C, followed by 25 and 15 °C, being able to show a stimulating or inhibiting effect. Hanseniaspora uvarum yeast strains showed a growth promoting activity higher at 15° C, followed by 25 and 30 °C. Even at conditions where A. alternata growth was stimulated by the S. bacillaris and H. uvarum yeasts, high inhibitions of mycotoxin production (AOH, AME and TA) were observed, indicating a complex interaction between growth and mycotoxin production.Conclusion: There is a significant influence of temperature on the effectiveness of biocontrol against A. alternata growth and mycotoxin production. Metschnikowia spp. strains are good candidates to compose a biofungicide against A. alternata.Significance and Impact of the study: Among the different antagonistic yeasts evaluated, only Metschnikowia spp. strains were equally effective reducing A. alternata growth and mycotoxin at different temperatures underlining the importance of considering environmental factors in the selection of the antagonists.