PONSSA Maria Laura
Sesamoids in tetrapods: the origin of new skeletal morphologies
ABDALA, VIRGINIA; VERA, MIRIAM C.; AMADOR, LUCILA I.; FONTANARROSA, GABRIELA; FRATANI, JESSICA; PONSSA, MARÍA L.
WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC
Año: 2019 vol. 94 p. 2011 - 2011
Along with supernumerary bones, sesamoids, defined as any organized intratendinous/intraligamentous structure, including those composed of fibrocartilage, adjacent to an articulation or joint, have been frequently considered as enigmatic structures associated with the joints of the skeletal system of vertebrates. This review allows us to propose a dynamic model to account for part of skeletal phenotypic diversity: during evolution, sesamoids can become displaced, attaching to and detaching from the long bone epiphyses and diaphysis. Epiphyses, apophyses and detached sesamoids are able to transform into each other, contributing to the phenotypic variability of the tetrapod skeleton. This dynamic model is a new paradigm to delineate the contribution of sesamoids to skeletal diversity. Herein, we first present a historical approach to the study of sesamoids, discussing the genetic versus epigenetic theories of their genesis and growth. Second, we construct a dynamic model. Third, we present a summary of literature on sesamoids of the main groups of tetrapods, including veterinary and human clinical contributions, which are the best-studied aspects of sesamoids in recent decades. Finally, we discuss the identity of certain structures that have been labelled as sesamoids despite insufficient formal testing of homology. We also propose a new definition to help the identification of sesamoids in general. This review is particularly timely, given the recent increasing interest and research activity into the developmental biology and mechanics of sesamoids. With this updated and integrative discussion, we hope to pave the way to improve the understanding of sesamoid biology and evolution.