LUQUET carlos Marcelo
Effects of azinphos-methyl on enzymatic activity and cellular immune response in the hemolymph of the freshwater snail Chilina gibbosa
HERBERT, LUCILA THOMSETT; CASTRO, JUAN MANUEL; BIANCHI, VIRGINIA ANGÉLICA; COSSI, PAULA FANNY; LUQUET, CARLOS MARCELO; KRISTOFF, GISELA
PESTICIDE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY
ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
The use of a battery of biomarkers, especially those more closely related to species integrity, is desired for more complete ecotoxicological assessments of the effects of pesticide contamination on aquatic organisms. The phosphorodithioate azinphos-methyl has been intensively used in agriculture worldwide and have been found in the habitat of Chilina gibbosa, a freshwater snail endemic to South America. This snail has been proposed as a good model organism for ecotoxicity bioassays on the basis of studies focused mainly on enzymatic responses in whole tissue homogenates. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of an acute 48 h exposure to an environmental concentration of azinphos-methyl on C. gibbosa hemolymph enzymatic activity and cellular immune response. Our results show that cholinesterase activity was strongly inhibited (94%) in hemolymph of exposed snails. Carboxylesterase activity measured with p-nitrophenyl butyrate and glutathione S-transferase activity were augmented 47% and 89% respectively after exposure. No differences were found for hemolymph carboxylesterase activity measured with p-nitrophenyl acetate. These results differ from those reported for whole tissue homogenates and reveal that tissue-specific responses of enzymatic biomarkers exist in this species. Regarding immune cell response, hemocytes were identified for the first time for C. gibbosa. Their viability and phagocytic activity decreased after azinphos-methyl exposure although total number of circulating cells did not differ between treatments. We conclude that concentrations of azinphos-methyl that can be found in the environment can compromise both hemolymph cholinesterase activity and the immune system of C. gibbosa. Furthermore, we propose that carboxylesterase and glutathione S-transferase activities measured in hemolymph and hemocyte viability and phagocytic activity could be incorporated as sensitive biomarkers to evaluate the effects of pesticide exposure on this and related species.