MARINO Veronica Julieta
Lysosomal permeabilization and endoplasmic reticulum stress mediate the apoptotic response induced after photoactivation of a lipophilic zinc(II) phthalocyanine
NICOLÁS A. CHIARANTE; GARCÍA VIOR M. CECILIA; OSVALDO REY; JULIETA MARINO; LEONOR P ROGUIN
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND CELLULAR BIOLOGY
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Lugar: Amsterdam; Año: 2018 vol. 103 p. 89 - 98
We have previously reported that the phototoxic action of the lipophilic phthalocyanine Pc9(2,9(10),16(17),23(24) tetrakis[(2-dimethylamino)ethylsulfanyl]phthalocyaninatozinc(II)) encapsulated into poloxamine micelles is related to the induction of an apoptotic response in murine colon CT26 carcinoma cells. In the present study, we explored the intracellular signals contributing to the resulting apoptotic death. We found that Pc9-T1107 arrests cell cycle progression immediately after irradiation promoting then an apoptotic response. Thus, 3 h after irradiation the percentage of hypodiploid cells increased from 5.9 ± 0.6% to23.1 ± 0.1%; activation of caspases 8 and 9 was evident; the population of cells with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential increased from 1.1 ± 0.4% to 44.0 ± 9.3%; the full-length forms of Bid and PARP-1 were cleaved; and a 50% decrease of the expression levels of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL was detected. We also found that the photosensitizer, mainly retained in lysosomes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), promotesthe permeabilization of lysosomal membranes and induces ER stress. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization was demonstrated by the reduction of acridine orange lysosome fluorescence, the release of Cathepsin D into the cytosol and ∼50% decrease of Hsp70, a chaperone recognized as a lysosomal stabilizer. Cathepsin D also contributed to Bid cleavage and caspase 8 activation. The oxidative damage to the ER induced an unfoldedprotein response characterized, 3 h after irradiation, by a 3-fold increase in cytosolic Ca2+ levels and 3?4 times higher expression of ER chaperones GRP78/BIP, calnexin, Hsp90 and Hsp110. The cell death signaling promoted by cytosolic Ca2+, calpains and lysosomal proteases was partially abolished by the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM, the calpain inhibitor PD 150606 and proteases inhibitors. Furthermore, Bax down-regulation observed in Pc9-treated cells was undetectable in the presence of PD 150606, indicating that calpains contribute to Bax proteolytic damage. In summary, our results indicate that photoactivation of Pc9-T1107 led to lysosomal membrane permeabilization, induction of ER stress and activation of a caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death.