CHALUP Laura Maria Isabel
Genetic and geographic origin of domesticated peanut as evidenced by 5S rDNA and chloroplast DNA sequences
GRABIELE MARINA; CHALUP LAURA; GERMAN ROBLEDO; SEIJO GUILLERMO
PLANT SYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTION
Lugar: Viena; Año: 2012
The history of the cultivated peanut involves natural evolution and human domestication. Despite the economic importance of peanuts and the many studies carried out on their cytology and genetic variability, current knowledge on the origin of the cultigen is still very limited compared with other major crops. In this context, we analyzed the polymorphisms of some non-coding cpDNA regions and the non-transcribed spacer of the nuclear 5S rDNA of the six botanical varieties of the two subspecies of the cultigen, of the wild tetraploid A. monticola, and of the nine diploid species so far proposed as the most probable relatives of the peanut, to gain more insight into the genetic and geographic origin of this legume crop. The analysis showed complete homology in the sequences of all the peanut and A. monticola samples. These results strongly suggest that the six botanical varieties of the cultigen have a single genetic origin and that A. monticola should be regarded as the immediate tetraploid ancestor from which A. hypogaea has arisen upon domestication. Here we provide results from the first sequence-based analysis in which the maternal (A. duranensis) and paternal (A. ipae¨nsis) wild diploid species of the AABB tetraploids of Arachis were unequivocally identified. Not only that, but the combination of cpDNA and NTS 5S rDNA identified the population of A. duranensis from Rı´o Seco, Salta, Argentina, and the only known population of A. ipae¨nsis from Villa Montes, Tarija, Bolivia, as those to which the genome donors of the peanut could have belonged.