JOBBAGY GAMPEL Esteban Gabriel
capítulos de libros
Ecohydrology: Processes and Implications for Rangelands
WILCOX, BRAD; LE MAITRE, DC; ESTEBAN G. JOBBAGY; BRESHEARS D
Rangeland Systems Processes, Management and Challenges
Springer International Publishing
Lugar: San Luis; Año: 2017; p. 85 - 129
This chapter is organized around the concept of ecohydrological processes that are explicitly tied to ecosystem services. Ecosystem services are benefits that people receive from ecosystems. We focus on (1) the regulating services of water distribution, water purification, and climate regulation; (2) the supporting services of water and nutrient cycling and soil protection and restoration; and (3) the provisioning services of water supply and biomass production. Regulating services are determined at the first critical juncture of the water cycle?on the soil surface, where water either infiltrates or becomes overland flow. Soil infiltrability is influenced by vegetation, grazing intensity, brush management, fire patterns, condition of biological soil crusts, and activity by fauna. At larger scales, water-regulating services are influenced by other factors, such as the nature and structure of riparian zones and the presence of shallow groundwater aquifers. Provisioning services are those goods or products that are directly produced from ecosystems, such as water, food, and fiber. Work over the last several decades has largely overturned the notion that water supply can be substantially increased by removal of shrubs. In riparian areas, surprisingly, removal of invasive, non-native woody plants appears to hold little potential for increasing water supply. Here, the primary factor appears to be that non-native plants use no more water than the native vegetation they displace. Clearly there is a close coupling between biota (both fauna and flora) and water on rangelands?which is why water-related ecosystem services are so strongly dependent on land management strategies.