SALOMON Oscar Daniel
Lutzomyia longipalpis, Gone with the Wind and Other Variables
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOC BRASIL
Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) is the main vector of Leishmania infantum (Nicolle) in America, associated in turn with the current spread and urbanization of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). The vector distribution in AVL foci shows a spatial-temporal clustering despite the different epidemiological contexts. The factors associated with the macroscale distribution of Lu. longipalpis as a landscape stratification are discussed in the framework of the process of their adaptation to anthropized environments. On the other hand, the fact that Lu. longipalpis is clustered in only a few hot spots or critical sites suggests that microscale approaches that describe the trap surrounding environment and the availability of refuges and food sources are better at explaining the uneven distribution of this vector, and should contribute, together with macroscale variables, to design operational control strategies. With regard to temporal distribution and climatic or vegetation data obtained by remote sensing as variables to explain and forecast the abundance of Lu. longipalpis, it is necessary to take into account the time lags in relation to the life cycle of the vector, the difference between the level of daily activity and actual abundance, and the differences in critical variables and thresholds according to the region or season. In conclusion, this review shows that it is feasible to characterize the distribution of Lu. longipalpis at focus level and within it to identify the main critical sites, proposing a sequential cost-effectivity strategy for urban AVL surveillance and control.