SALOMON Oscar Daniel
Niche divergence and paleo-distributions of Lutzomyia longipalpis mitochondrial haplogroups (Diptera: Psychodidae)
MOO-LLANES, DAVID A.; PECH-MAY, ANGÉLICA; DE OCA-AGUILAR, ANA C. MONTES; SALOMÓN, OSCAR D.; RAMSEY, JANINE M.
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Año: 2020 vol. 211
Lutzomyia longipalpis is a complex of species which has a wide but discontinuous distribution from southeastern Mexico to northern Argentina and Uruguay. To date, eight mitochondrial haplogroups have been identified along its distribution although key environmental tolerances and ecological niche models have been analyzed only at the complex level. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether genetic diversification using three mitochondrial genes of the Lu. longipalpis complex is associated with niche divergence and to explore evolution of distributional projections of all haplogroups between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 21,000 yrs ago) and the present. Current occurrence of all haplogroups was used to develop ecological niche models (ENM) and these were projected in both periods to quantify and identify geographic area shifts. Environmental space was used to estimate niche similarity between major clades and pairwise between individual haplogroups. The two major Lu. longipalpis clades (Mex, CA, Col and Ven vs Arg and Bra) had significantly different environmental space, indicating niche divergence. Environmental space overlap of southern haplogroups was variable, with divergent niche, except between Arg and ArgBra. The most suitable regions for the ArgBra haplogroup were northeastern and southeastern Brazil, and the Gran Chaco region. In contrast, ENM of haplogroups within the northern major clade have significantly similar niche, with highest geographic ENM suitability along both the Caribbean and Pacific coasts. The intensity and coverage of high suitability areas in the LGM decreased for most haplogroups in the present. Integrating ENM and phylogenetic analyses has allowed us to test hypotheses of niche similarity between Lu. longipalpis haplogroups and major clades, and to identify conserved distributional areas of haplogroups since the LGM, with the exception of Arg. Evidence for distributional shifts and overlap of haplogroups is important to analyze Leishmaniasis´ eco-epidemiology and to successfully monitor and control transmission.