SALOMON Oscar Daniel
Twice upon a time: The progression of canine visceral leishmaniasis in an Argentinean city
LAMATTINA D; BERROZPE P; CASAS N; MOYA SL; GIULIANI MG; COSTA SA; ARRABAL JP; MARTINEZ MF; RIVERO MR; SALAS MM; HUMERES CA; LIOTTA DJ; MEICHTRY B; SALOMON OD
PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE
Año: 2019 vol. 14
Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) prevalence, spatial distribution and associated factors were assessed in four locations in Iguazu´ department in 2014 and in Puerto Iguazu´ city again in 2018. The city areas were divided into a grid of 400x400m cells. All cells were sampled in 2014 and a random subsampling was developed in 2018. In each cell, five dogs clustered in a ?critical scenario? (prone to have vectors) were sampled. A rapid immunochromatographic dipstick was used to detect antibodies against Leishmania infantum, confirming by lymph node smears observation and PCR. For Puerto Iguazu´, Generalized LinearModels (GLMs) were constructed considering environmental, dog and clinical variables. Pearson?s Chi square and Fisher?s exact tests were employed to evaluate the association between CVL, dog clinical signs and infestation with other parasites. Cartographic outputs were made and Moran?s I indices were calculated as spatial autocorrelation indicators. CVL prevalence rates were 26.18% in 2014 and 17.50% in 2018. No associations were established in environmental models, but dog age and repellent use were significant whenrunning 2014 dog models. Clinical models showed significant associations between seropositive dogs and ophthalmological, dermal signs and onychogryphosis in 2014. In 2018, only adenomegaly was associated. The results of global Moran´s I were not significant but regarding local analysis, six sites in 2014 and one in 2018 presented autocorrelation with neighboring sites. The decrease in CVL prevalence may be associated to transmission stabilization, which could explain the lack of associations with dog-related variables. Further,spatial distribution of CVL is a poor evidence for design of transmission control measures but could be important in case of intensive parasite circulation or when the first autochthonous cases appear. For control success, sensitivity of diagnostic methods, political will and adequate material resources remain critical. Modeling of multiple variables will be required to identify factors that drive disease stabilization/destabilization.