ARIAS MarÍa Florencia
congresos y reuniones científicas
Multiproxy taxonomic identification at Late Holocene Los Viscos archaeological site in the South-Central Andes
MARIANA MONDINI; ANAHÍ HERNANDEZ; MARÍA FLORENCIA ARIAS; ROMINA SANDRA PETRIGH; NADIA JIMENA VELAZQUEZ; MARTÍN HORACIO FUGASSA
Encuentro; The 9th meeting of the ICAZ Archaeozoology, Genetics, Proteomics and Morphometrics (AGPM) Working Group; 2021
University of Oulu
Los Viscos rockshelter, in NW Argentina, has archaeological occupations ranging ca. 680-1630 cal AD by agropastoral societies and, at the latest end of the sequence, a brief one during Hispanic-Indigenous early contact. Faunal remains are well preserved and include bones, faeces, pellets, hair, feathers and artefacts. We applied a multiproxy, interdisciplinary approach to identify the taxonomic richness represented at the site. We identified bones and teeth with the usual zooarchaeological approach of morphological comparison to reference collections, and also applied morphometric analyses, both traditional and geometric. Herbivore palaeofaeces morphology, ancient DNA (aDNA), parasite and pollen contents were also analysed. This is the first morphometric information on South American camelids in this area and the first multiproxy study of herbivore palaeofaeces in the South-Central Andes. The information was in turn correlated with previous studies on animal fibers, carnivore scats, raptor pellets, and animal representations in rock art. This multiproxy approach to the faunal record allowed robust inferences. Overall, it showed the interaction of the local human groups with camelids, both domestic (Lama glama) and wild (Lama guanicoe and Vicugna vicugna), which make up the bulk of the archaeofaunal assemblage, and suggested different modes of interaction with them, including hunting, gathering, grazing and also possibly exchange. Capra hircus was also identified by aDNA in some pellets?and not in bones?, suggesting an early presence of this European herbivore. None of these camelids currently inhabit the area, and goats introduced huge changes in the region. Thus, the study has significant palaeoenvironmental and cultural implications.