Extracellular vesicles released by anaerobic protozoan parasites: current situation
NIEVAS, YESICA ROMINA; LIZARRAGA, AYELEN; SALAS, NEHUEN; CÓCERES, VERÓNICA MABEL; DE MIGUEL, NATALIA
CELLULAR MICROBIOLOGY (PRINT)
WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as a ubiquitous mechanism for transferringinformation between cells and organisms across all three kingdoms of life. Parasiticunicellular eukaryotes use extracellular vesicles as vehicles for intercellularcommunication and host manipulation. Pathogenic protozoans are able to modulate theimmune system of the host and establish infection by transferring a wide range ofmolecules contained in different types of EVs. In addition to effects on the host, EVs areable to transfer virulence factors, drug-resistance genes and differentiation factorsbetween parasites. In this review we cover the current knowledge on EVs from anaerobicor microaerophilic extracellular protozoan parasites, including Trichomonas vaginalis,Tritrichomonas foetus, Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica, with a focus ontheir potential role in the process of infection. The role of EVs in host: parasitecommunication adds a new level of complexity to our understanding of parasite biology,and may be a key to understand the complexity behind their mechanism of pathogenesis.