GLISONI Romina Julieta
congresos y reuniones científicas
Polymeric micelles for the development of nanovaccines against infectious diseases and cancer
Mar del Plata
Congreso; SAIC SAI SAFIS-NANOMED-ar 2018; 2018
The design and development of nanosystems is a promising field to improve the efficacy and safety of vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Due to its size, the large surface area/volume ratio and the ability to functionalize its surface and to encapsulate antigens and adjuvants, these systems have the potential of a delivery directed towards the antigen-presenting cells, where the immune response will start. Nowadays, there are several formulations of nanovaccines based on liposomes and virus-like-particles that were approved for use in humans. Non-ionic block copolymers based on polyoxyethylene (PEO) and polyoxypropylene (PPO) blocks are the most investigated non-ionic polymers for the development of vaccine adjuvants. Above the CMC, linear PEO-PPO-PEO copolymer aggregates to form micelles with a hydrophobic core of PPO, while PEO chains form the hydrophilic shell. At a certain concentration and temperature, some of these copolymers are able to organize themselves forming gel-like structures, allowing a sustained release of drugs and proteins. The adjuvant activity of the block copolymers is influenced by PPO block size. As the size of this block increases, maximum activity is achieved. However, the adjuvant activity is also affected by the amount of PEO, being optimal when it is found in low concentrations. The selection of the copolymer type depends on the properties of the antigen, finding a greater interaction with hydrophilic soluble proteins when polymers have a higher percentage of PEO while hydrophobic proteins with transmembrane regions interact better with polymers with a higher percentage of PPO. However, it remains to deepen on the interactions of these nanosystems with immune system cells and the impact of the composition and the physicochemical properties of the systems developed in their efficacy and safety.